DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Olio, K., & Cornell, W. (1993). The therapeutic relationship as the foundation for treatment of adult survivors of sexual abuse. Psychotherapy, 30, 512-523.
Parks, ED, & Balon, R. (1995). Autobiographical memory for childhood events: Patterns of recall in psychiatric patients with a history of alleged trauma. Psychiatry, 58 (3), 199- 208.
Findings suggest that patients with an alleged history of trauma have a measurably different pathway of recall for early events than the patient and nonpatient comparison groups.
Pearlman, L., & Saakvitne, K. (1995). Trauma and the Therapist: Countertransference and Vicarious Traumatization in Psychotherapy with Incest Survivors. New York: W.W. Norton.
Peebles-Kleiger, M J. (1989). Using countertransference in the hypnosis of trauma victims: A model for turning hazard into healing. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48, 518- 530.
Perry, BD (1994). Neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma: Posttraumatic stress disorder in children. In MM Murburg (Ed.). Catecholamine function in posttraumatic stress disorder: Emerging Concepts. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Person, E, & Klar, H. (1994). Establishing trauma: The difficulty distinguishing between memories and fantasies. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 42, 1055-1081.
Pettem, O., West, M., Mahoney, A., & Keller, A. (1993). Depression and attachment problems. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 18, 78-81.
Pettinati, H. (Ed.). (1988). Hypnosis and memory. New York: Guilford.
Pfeffer, CR. (1996). Severe stress and mental disturbance in children.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Phelps, A, Frielander, ML, & Enns, CZ. (1997). Psychotherapy process variables associated with the retrieval of memories of child sexual abuse: A qualitative study. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 44(3), 321-332.
The literature provides little information about the actual experience of clients in therapy and the factors related to the retrieval of partially or completely forgotten memories of child sexual abuse. Review of the literature on treatment of CSA survivors revealed 7 factors of the relationship that appear important:
(1) Therapeutic relationship of safety and trust; (2) client control of as much of the process as possible; (3) emotional availability of the therapist; (4) therapist assistance in management of emotional intensity of memories; (5) therapist willingness to help the client deal with dissociated aspects of self; (6) therapist validation of client's experience and willingness to explore traumatic material; and (7) therapist openness to the possibility that abuse occurred but avoids suggestive therapeutic techniques. 11 subjects, self-identified as CSA. Individuals with continuous memory were not included in the study. Confirmed the above factors.
Polusny, MA, & Follette, VM. (1996). Remembering child sexual abuse: A national survey of psychologists' clinical practices, beliefs, and personal experiences. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 41-52.
223 psychologists in a national survey. 25% reported using guided imagery, dream interpretation, and bibliotherapy in regards to sexual abuse, referral to abuse groups, and free association of childhood memories. However, the majority of therapists reported they had not seen any cases of adult clients entering therapy with no memory of CSA and subsequently recovering memory.
Poole, DA, Lindsay, DS, Memon, A, & Bull, R. (1995). Psychotherapy and the recovery of memories of childhood sexual abuse: US and British practitioners' opinions, practices, and experiences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 426-437.
Pope, HG, & Hudson, JI. (1995). Can individuals 'repress' memories of childhood sexual abuse? An examination of the evidence. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 715-719.
Review 4 articles (less than 20% of the pertinent literature) on repressed memory. All articles showed amnesia in the studies population, but methodology was criticized by the authors. They cautiously say that proponents of the "repressed memory" thesis had failed to meet their burden of proof. (See Scheflin and Brown, 1996 for a rebuttal).
Pope, KS, Butcher, JN, & Seelen, J. The MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A in court: Assessment, testimony, and cross-examination for expert witnesses and attorneys. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapters include courts' recognition , use and restriction of MMPI-based testimony; expert witness preparation; attorney preparation; assessing malingering and other aspects of credibility; writing forensic reports; deposing and cross-examining the expert witness: 80 basic questions. Appendices included. A supplemental packet of 55 transparencies for use in court is also available.
Pope, KS. (1996). Memory, abuse, and science: Questioning claims about the False memory epidemic. American Psychologist, 51,(9), 957-974.
Pope, KS, & Brown, LS. (1996). Recovered memories of abuse: Assessement, therapy, forensics. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Poyer, B & Giovachinni, P. (Eds.). (1990). Master clinicians: On treating the regressed patient. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Putnam, FW. (1989). Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
Pynoos, RS, & Nader, K. (1989). Children's memory and proximity to violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(2), 236-241.
133 children studied after a sniper attack on an elementary school. Discusses the role of spatial representation, memory markers, inner plans of action, and strategies of recall in memory process. Does not look at issues of amnesia.
Pynoos, RS & Nader, K. (1990). Children's exposure to violence and traumatic death. Psychiatric Annals, 20(6), 334-344.
Ramsay, R., Gorst-Unsworth, C, & Turner, S. (1993). Psychiatric morbidity in survivors of state organized violence including torture: A retrospective series. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 55-59.
Reite, M., & Field, T. (Eds.). (1985). The psychobiology of attachment and separation. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Reviere, S. (1996). Memory of childhood trauma: A clinician's guide to the literature. New York: Guilford Press.
Roe, CM, & Schwartz, MK (1996). Characteristics of previously forgotten memories of sexual abuse: A descriptive study. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24(2), 189-206.
52 women, hospitalized for sexual trauma. 88% reported history of Child sexual abuse. 77% had not remembered for a significant amount of time (3 to 45 years.).
Rosenbaum, M. (1980). The role of the term Schizophrenia in the decline of the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37,1383-1385.
Ross, CA, Norton, GR, & Fraser, GA (1989). Evidence against the iatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 2, 61-64.
Ross, CA, Norton, GR, & Wozney, K. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: An analysis of 236 cases. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 413-418.
Ross, CA (1990). Twelve cognitive errors about multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 64, 348-356.
Ross, CA. (1991). Epidemiology of multiple personality disorder and dissociation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 503-517.
Ross, CA, Anderson, G, Fleisher, WP, & Norton, GR. (1991). The frequency of multiple personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiaty, 150, 1717-1720.
Ross, CA, Kronson, J, Doensgen, S, Barkman, K, Clark, P, & Rockman, G. (1992). Dissociative comorbidity in 100 chemically dependent patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 840-842.
Ross, CA, & Dua, V. (1993). Psychiatric health care costs of multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 47, 103-111.
Roth, S, & Newman, E. (1991). The process of coping with sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4, 279-297.
Presents a conceptual system that characterizes the coping process of recovery from sexual trauma. Preliminary reliability is discussed.
Rubin, LJ. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse: False accusations of "false memory"? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(5), 447-451.
False memory proponents assumes child sexual abuse would always be recalled accurately, whereas memory would be easily distorted in the survivor. The possibility of perpetrators "false memory" is explored. Denial, secrecy, re-enactment of trauma, alcoholic blackouts and outright lying are all potential explanations for perpetrator memory loss and motivated forgetting.
Runtz, MG, Shaelow, JR. (1997). Social support and coping strategies as mediators of adult adjustment following child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 45-51.
Sander, B. & Giolas, MH (1991). Dissociation and childhood trauma in psychologically disturbed adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 50-54.
Saporta, JA, & van der Kolk, BA. (1992). Psychobiological consequences of severe trauma. In M. Basogh (Ed.). Torture and its consequences, 151-181. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sar, V., Yargic, LI, & Tutkun, H. (1996). Structured interview data on 35 cases of dissociative identity disorder in Turkey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1329-1333.
Sarbin, TR, & Coe, WC. (1979). Hypnosis: A social psychological anaysis of influence communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Contends that some hypnotic theories are restricted and narrow in scope, rendering them unnecessarily isolated from mainstream models of human development, psychopathology, and personality functioning. For illustrative purposes the author criticizes the sociocognitive perspective of hypnosis (Spanos, Lynn, & Rhue, Sarbin, etc.) contending that it is too narrowly inductive in focus, overvalues social influence, and has its own problems with reification. The author suggests remedies.
Sargent, W., & Slater, E. (1941). Amnesic syndromes in war. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 34, 757-764.
Amnesia and dissociative fugue occurred in 5-14.4% Of WW II combat veterans (n=1000). As many of 35% of soldiers in the most severe combat had amnesia for these events.
Saxe, GN, van der Kolk, BA, Berkowitz, R., Chinman, G, Hall, K, Leiberg, G, & Schwartz, J. (1993). Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1037-1042.
Saywitz, KJ, Goodman, GS, Nichols, E, & Moan, SF (1991). Children's memories of a physical examination involving genital touch: Implications for reports of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 682-691.
72 five- and seven-year-old girls underwent standardized medical exam. For half, the checkup included vaginal and anal exams. For the other half, a scoliosis exam was substituted. Memory was evaluated by free recall, anatomically detailed dolls, prop demonstration, and direct and misleading questions. Majority of children with genital exam revealed vaginal and anal contact only when directly asked. Error regarding vaginal and anal touch were predominantly due to omission. Some children, when directly asked, denied contact. Children in the scoliosis group never falsely reported genital contact in free recall or doll demonstration. Further, with direct questioning, the false report was very rare.
Scheflin, AW, & Brown, D. (1996). Repressed memory or dissociative amnesia: What the science says. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24(2), 143-end.
Describes 25 studies on repressed memory of childhood sexual abuse. Although the studies had various methodologies every one showed evidence of repressed memory, and with the exception of 2 studies, were relatively uniform in the percentage of repression.
Scheflin, AW, & Brown, D. (1996). Repressed memory or dissociative amnesia: What the science says. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24(2), 143-188.
Reviews 25 studies on amnesia in child sexual abuse that includes various methodologies and populations: Clinical and non-clinical surveys, Random sample surveys, Prospective studies, and studies on the accuracy of recovered trauma memories
Scheflin, AW, Brown, D, & Hammond, DC. (1997). Memory, therapy, and law. Des Plaines, IL: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis.
Schooler, JW. (1994). Seeking the core: The issues and evidence surrounding recovered accounts of sexual trauma. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 452-469.
Schultz, R., Braun, BG, & Kluft, RP. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: Phenomenology of selected variables in comparison to major depression. Dissociation, 2, 45-51.
Schwartz, ED, & Perry, BD. (1994). The post traumatic response in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17(2), 311-326.
Shalev, AY, Freedman, S, Peri, T, Brandes, D, & Sahar, T. (1997). Predicting PTSD in trauma survivors: Evaluation of self-report and clinician-administered instruments. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 558-564.
Simon, RI, & Gutheil, TG (1997). Ethical and risk management principles in recovered memory cases: Maintaining therapist neutrality. In PS Appelbaum, LS Ryehara, & MR Elin. (Eds.). Trauma and Recovery: Clinical and Legal Controversy, 477-495. New York: Oxford University Press.
Somberg, D, Stone, G, & Clairborn, C. (1993). Informed consent: Therapist beliefs and practices. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 153-159.
Generally therapists do not use informed consent for specific techniques or practices. Belief about informed consent does not translate into action.
Somer, E. (1994). Hypnotherapy and regulated uncovering in the treatment of older survivors of Nazi persecution. Clinical Gerontologist, 14(3), 47-65.
Discusses hypnotherapeutic titration techniques to assist Holocaust survivors to uncover previously repressed memory of concentration camp experiences.
Southwick, SM, Krystal, JH, Morgan, A, et al. (1993). Abnormal noradrenergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 266-274.
Southwick, SM, Krystal, JH, Johnson, DR, & Charney, D. (1995). Neurobiology of PTSD. In GS Everly & JS Lating (Eds.). Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress, 49-72. New York: Plenum Press.
Spanos, NP (1994). Hypnosis and multiple personality disorder: A sociocognitive perspective. In SJ Lynn & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp. 136-155. New York: Guilford Press.
Spiegel, D. (Ed.). (1993). Dissociative Disorders: A Clinical Review. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.
Spiegel, D, & Scheflin, AW (1994). Dissociated or fabricated: Psychiatric aspects of repressed memory in criminal and civil cases. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42, 411-432.
Spiegel, H. (1968). Facts or fiction? (Media film). F. McGee, Producer. NBC News.
A nationally televised demonstration of pseudomemory in a Grade V subject. Following hypnotic suggestion of a communist conspiracy plot at the height of McCarthyism, this subject embellishes the fictitious story and specifically named innocent individuals as being part of the plot.
Stein, A. (1994). Hidden children: Forgotten survivors of the Holocaust. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Collection of interviews with child survivors who were hidden during the war. Ervin Staub: "Over the years I have been trying to re-experience those feelings, but they kept eluding me. I was cut off from most of my memories, and from relieving the anxiety of that time." (P. 106). I remember nothing about the time I spent with those people....Not a face, not a voice, not a piece of furniture. As if the time I spent there had been a time out of my life. (P. 107)....What is missing? Why can't I conjure up those memories? I am staring into the darkness with occasional flashes of light allowing me to unearth bits and pieces of life."
Steinberg, M, Cicchetti, D, Buchanan, J, Hall, P, & Rounsaville, B. (1993). Clinical assessment of dissociative symptoms and disorders: The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 6(1), 3-15.
Steinberg, M, Cicchetti, D, Buchanan, J, Rakfeldt, J, & Rounsaville, B. (1994). Distinguishing between multiple personality disorder (DID) and schizophrenia using the SCID-D. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182,495-502.
Steinberg, M. (1994). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). (Rev. ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Steinberg, M. (1995). Handbook for the assessment of dissociation: A clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Steinberg, M, Kluft, RP, Coons, PM, Bowman, ES, Fine, CG, Find DL, Hall, PE, Rounsaville, BJ, Cicchetti, DV. (1989-1993). Multicenter field trials of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders.New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Medicine.
Steinberg, M., Rounsaville, BJ, Cicchetti, DV, et al. (1994). Distinguishing between schizophrenia and multiple personality disorder: A systematic evaluation of overlapping symptoms using a structured interview. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 495-500.
Swica, Y, Lewis, DO, & Lewis, M. (1996). Child abuse and dissociative identity disorder: The documentation of childhood maltreatment and the corroboration of symptoms. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5(2), 431-447.
Careful and extensive documentation of repressed memories in DID patients.
Tabachnick, BG, & Pope, KS. (1997). Therapist responses to recovered and never-forgotten memories of child sexual abuse. Violence Against Women, 3(4), 348-360.
National survey of 300 female and 300 male licensed psychologists. Participants presented with vignettes in which a 14-year-old girl told a therapist that her father had sexually abuse from for a year at a specific age (either 2 or 8), that she either had or had not forgotten the abuse, and that the therapist is the first one that she has told. The age at which the alleged abuse occurred and the therapist's age produced significant effects on evaluations of credibility, as did an interaction of the therapist's sex and theoretical orientation.
Terr, L. (1988). What happens to the early memories of trauma? A study of 20 children under the age of five at the time of documented traumatic events. American Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 96-104.
Verbal recall depends on child's age when traumatized and on the chronicity of the trauma. Children under 28-36 months tended to have less verbal memory of their experiences.
Terr, L (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 10-20.
"Verbal recollections of single shocks in an otherwise trauma-free childhood are delivered in an amazingly clear and detailed fashion....Children with Type I disorders seem to remember the event and to give impressively clear, detailed accounts of their experiences." (P. 14). "Children who experience Type II traumas often forget. They may forget whole segments of childhood." (P. 16)
Thom, DA & Fenton, N. (1920). Amnesias in war cases. American Journal of Insanity, 76, 437-448.
Tutkun, H, Yargic, LI, & Sar, V. (1995). Dissociative Identity Disorder: A clinical investigation of 20 cases in Turkey. Dissociation, 8 (1), 3-13.