DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Utts, JM. (1996). Seeing through statistics. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
van der Hart, O. (1987). Hypnosis for individuals too susceptible to suggestions. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 11-19.
van der Hart, O, Brown, P, & van der Kolk, BA (1989). Pierre Janet's treatment of post-traumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2 (4), 379-395. Reprinted in GS Everly & JM Lating (Eds.) Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress, 195-210. New York: Plenum Press.
van der Hart, O, & Friedman, B. (1989). A reader's guide to Pierre Janet on dissociation: A neglected intellectual heritage. Dissociation, 2(1), 3-16.
An excellent introductory overview of Janet's major works and the evolution of his dissociation theory.
van der Hart, O, & Brown, P. (1992). Abreaction re-evaluated. Dissociation, 5(4), 127-138.
van der Hart, O, Steele, K, Boon, S, & Brown, P. (1993). The treatment of traumatic memory: Synthesis, realization, and integration. Dissociation, 6, (2/3).
van der Hart, O, & Nijenhuis, E. (1995). Amnesia for traumatic experiences. Hypnos, 22, 73- 86.
van der Kolk, BA (1987). Psychological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
van der Kolk, BA (1987). The separation cry and the trauma response: Developmental issues in the psychobiology of attachment and separation. In BA van der Kolk (Ed.). Psychological trauma, pp. 31-62. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
van der Kolk, BA, & van der Hart, O. (1991). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1530-1540.
van der Kolk, BA, & van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48(4), 425-454.
van der Kolk, BA, & Fisler, R E. (1994). Childhood abuse and neglect and loss of self-regulation. Bulletin of the Menniger Clinic, 58, 145-168.
van der Kolk, BA (1995). The body, memory, and the psychobiology of trauma. In JL Alpert (Ed.). Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate, 29-60. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
van der Kolk, BA, & Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505-525.
46 adults with indepth interviews. Of the 36 with childhood trauma, 42% suffered significant or total amnesia at some time. Corroborative evidence was available for 75%.
van der Kolk, BA, & Fisler, RE. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 505- 525.
46 subjects with PTSD. Traumatic memories were initially retrieved as visual, olfactory, affective, auditory and kinesthetic experiences. Over time there was a gradual emergence of a reconstructed personal narrative.
van der Kolk, BA, Pelcovitz, D, Roth, S, & Herman, JL. (1996). Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: The complexity of adaptation to trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7).
van der Kolk, BA, McFarlane, AC, & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.). (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experiences on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.
Vanderlinden, J, van Dyck, R, Vandereycken, W, & Vertommen, H. (1993). Dissociation and traumatic experiences in the general population of the Netherlands. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 786-788.
Vanderlinen, J., Varga, K., Peuskens, J, & Pieters, G. (1995). Dissociative symptoms in a population sample of Hungary. Dissociation, 8(4), 205- 208.
N=311, general population sample. Using the DIS-Q. The findings correspond with the data of all previous population studies on the prevalence of dissociative experiences. These experiences are more frequently present in adolescents and young adults, and they decline with age. An important subgroup, 10.6 of the total sample, scored about the cut- off score of 2.5. 2.6% of this subgroup reported scores as high as scores of European and American patients with DID (DIS-Q scor > 3).
Vanderlinden, J, van der Hart, O, & Varga, K. (1996). European studies of dissociation. In LK Michelson & WJ Ray (Eds.). Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives, 51-66. New York: Plenum Press.
van Ilzendoom, MH, & Schuengel, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: Meta-analytic validation of the DES. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 365-382.
Series of meta-analyses on approximately 100 studies on dissociation to test some of the theoretical assumptions underlying the DES and to examine reliability and validity. RESULTS: DES showed excellent convergent validity with other dissociative experiences questionnaires and interview schedules (combined effect size: d=1.82, N=5916). The DES also showed impressive predictive validity, in particular concerning dissociative disorders (MPD: combined effect size d=1.05, N=1705) and traumatic experiences (PTSD: combined effect size d=0.75 N=1099, and abuse: combined effect size=0.52 N=2108). However, discriminant validity was less well established. The DES is sensitive to response and experimenter biases. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended to average DES scores over more points in time and over more judges. The model of dissociation as a form of autohypnosis failed to receive support from the data. A developmental model to interpret dissociation is proposed.
van Ravesteijn, L. (1976). Gelaagdheid van herinneringen [Layering of memories]. Tijdschrift boor Psychotherapie, 5 (1).
"A smell, a sound, an image evoke fragments of images or emotions, more compelling than current reality, fragments to which all experience pain, anger, fear, shame, and powerlessness have attached themselves. Must a coherent account be given, then it is often painfully apparent that this is impossible. Most often, the person is unable to present an overview of this period." (p. 195).
van Sweden, RC. (1994). Regression to dependence: A second opportunity for ego integration and developmental progression. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
van Velsen, C, Gorst-Unsworth, C, & Turner, S. (1996). Survivors of torture and organized violence: Demography and Diagnosis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(2), 181-194.
N=60. Amnesia in 11% without sexual torture and in 13% with sexual torture.
Viederman, M. (1995). The reconstruction of a repressed sexual molestation fifty years later. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 43, 1169 -.
Single Case Study: Reconstruction of a previously completely repressed memory of sexual molestation. Six years following termination of analysis, the patient wrote a letter describing a confirmation of the event, now sixty years past, from the sole other survivor of the period who had knowledge of what had happened.
von Braunsberg, MJ (1994). Multiple personality disorder: An investigation of prevalence in three populations. Dissertation Abstracts International, ADG94-08430. New York: Syracuse University.
Wagenaar, WA, & Groenweg, J. (1990). The memory of concentration camp survivors. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4, 77-87.
The study is concerned with whether extremely emotional experiences leave traces in memory that cannot be extinguished. Testimonies of 78 survivors are taken from 1943-1947 and for a second time during a Nazi war criminal trial (Defendant - Marins de Rijke, Camp Erika, Netherlands) from 1984-1987. The witnesses agreed about the basic facts. Three of 38 survivors tortured by De Rijke had forgotten his name on the second interview; one had known his name quite well in the original interview. The fact that the memories of the more brutal events were not more resistant against forgetting remains highly informative, even if the forgetting is aggravated by age effects. The forgotten elements are not only the unique details of events, but also some aspects to which the witnesses were exposed repeatedly. The effects of fotgetting reported above cannot easlily be situated in the stage of encoding. The forgotten elements were in many cases reported in the early testimonies. Results show camp experiences were generally well-remembered although specific but essential details were forgotten, including being maltreated, names and appearances of torturers, and being a witness to murder. Intensity of experience is NOT a sufficient safeguard against forgetting.
Walant, KB. (1995). Creating the capacity for attachment: Treating addictions and the alienated self. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Waller, NG, Putnam, FW, & Carlson, EB. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 300-321.
DES-T may reliably differentiate DID from other clinical syndromes. Waller states that the DES-T is appropriate as a screen, but not for diagnostic purposes.
Walter, NG, Putnam, FW, & Carlson, EB. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 300-321.
Weber, RL (1996). The differential diagnosis of factitious dissociative identity disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International - B 75/05, p. 3426. Union Institute.
Compares 3 groups: DID, factitious DID, and mixed psychiatric diagnoses using SCID- D, SCID-II, DES, MMPI-2. The factitious group had less severity of SCID-D scores, less severity of sexual and physical abuse memories recalled during treatment, more prior exposure to DID and leading questions, and more admissions of false symptoms, alters, and memories.
Werner, EE, & Smith, RS (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill Books.
West, M. Rose, MS, & Sheldon, A. (1993). Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 422-427.
Westerhof, Y, Woertmann, L, & van der Hart, O. (In press). Forgetting child abuse: Feldman- Summers & Pope's (1994) replicated among Dutch psychologists.
Psychologists with abuse histories. 39% report forgetting and later recovering memories of abuse. 70% of recovered memories were corroborated. Delayed recall is "not a North American culture-bound phenomena."
Widom, CS. (1988). Sampling biases and implications for child abuse research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 260-270.
Widom, CS. (1989). Child abuse, neglect, and adult behavior: Research design and findings on criminality, violence, and child abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 355-367.
Widom, CS, & Shepard, RL (1996). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimiztion: Part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychological Assessment, 8(4), 412-421.
Using data from a prospective-cohorts desing study in which children who were physically, sexually abused or neglected about 20 years ago, accuracy of adult recollections were assessed. There was also a matched control group. 1,196 interviews were conducted. Results indicated good discriminant validity and predictive efficiency of the self-report measures, despite substantial underreporting by physically abused respondents.
Widom, CS, & Morris, S. (In press). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: II. Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessement. [cited in Scheflin & Brown, 1996].
A prospective study in which abused and neglected children (court substantiated) [N=1,114] were matched with non-abused and neglected children and followed into adulthood. There was substantial underreporting of sexual abuse, when compared to court and medical records. Victimization recall was checked by comparing crimes disclosed in victimization surveys found in police records. The question should be not whether reports of childhood sexual abuse are valid or not, but what is the best way to ask questions to make answers more valid.
Wilkinson, CB. (1983). Aftermath of a disaster: The collapse of the Hyatt Regency Hotel skywalks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1134-1139.
Wilkomirski, B. (1995). Translated 1996 by CB Janeway. Fragments: Memories of a Wartime Childhood. New York: Schocken Books.
I don't remember how it came about, but I found myself in a group that was going 'on the transport'....All I remember is the end of the journey, and the memory is full of holes, muddled, in broken pictures with no order to them, too many pieces missing....The others are yelling, too, I have to run, with them, now, before it's too late....This forced march went on and on and on...a farmer's wife waved a basket at us, and after that my memory just turns into a long gray fog....It wasn't till long afterward, when it had turned cold and the first snow was falling, that my mind began to work again, and I became aware of my surroundings.[He had been transported to Auschwitz]. The world was full of barracks again....I had my usual barracks again, like before, but this one seemed to be in a different place. Who brought my barracks here and why?...Everything seemed to be dissolving, murky, a blur. I didn't know enough to make sense of it....I have some shreds of memory still, like a brief flash of light, but their meaning is much less clear....My memory stops here....The next thing I have any recollection of was months later, and even that is hazy....Where they took me, and who took me - I've no idea. It's all a blur.
Williams, LM (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women's memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 62, 1167-1176.
Williams, LM. (1994). What does it mean to forget child sexual abuse? A reply to Loftus, Garry, & Feldman. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1182-1186.
Further analysis of the data from 129 women disproved alternative hypotheses offered by Loftus, et al. for "forgetting".
Williams, LM. (1995). Recovered memories of abuse in women with documented child sexual victimization histories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 649-674.
In interviews with 129 women with documented history of child sexual abuse, 38% had some degree of amnesia, and 12% denied they had been abused.
Wilson, J., Harel, Z, & Kahana, B. (1988). Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam. New York: Plenum Press.
Wilson, JP, & Keane, TM. (Eds.). (1997). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.
Winnicott, DW. (1965). Dependence in infant-care, in child-care, and in the psychoanalytic setting. In The maturational processes and the facilitating environment, pp. 249-259. New York: International Universities Press.
Wong, CK (1990). Too shameful to remember: a 17 year old Chinese boy with psychogenic amnesia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 570-574.
Wong, N. (1995). Group psychotherapy, combined individual and group psychotherapy, and psychodrama. In HI Kaplan & BJ Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, pps. 1821-1837. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Groups that are homogenous for a common disorder and for ego functioning appear to offer a better outcome than do heterogenous groups. That finding applies especially to patients who have an eating disorder, substance abuse, or who have been sexually abused. (p. 1837).
Wooley, S, Vigilanti, MA. (1984). Psychological separation and the sexual abuse victim. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 21, 347-352.
Yapko, MD (1994). Suggestibility and repressed memories of abuse: A survey of psychotherapist's beliefs. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36(3), 163-171.
Yargic, LI, Tutkun, H., & Sar, V. (1994). Bir cogul kisilik bozuklugu vakasi [Multiple personality disorder: A case presentation.] Noropsiliyatri Arsivi (Archives of Neuropsychiatry, Turkey), 31, 30-34.
Yehuda, R, Giller, EL, Southwick, SM, et al. (1991). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 499-504.
Yehuda, R., Elkin, et al. (July, 1996). Dissociation in aging Holocaust survivors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, (7), 935-940.
Yehuda, R., Schniedler, J, Siever, LJ, Binder-Brynes, K, & Elkin, A. (1997). Individual differences in posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profiles in Holocaust survivors in concentration camps or in hiding. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10 , 453-465.
46% of 100 survivors report amnesia on PTSD measures.