DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Cross Cultural Studies on DID
It is important to note that one cannot conclude DID does not exist in a country if no prevalence study has been done there. Statements by individual therapists that it does not exist or is rare do not constitute a prevalence study. Also, surveys of therapists questioning how many DID patients they have diagnosed is not a prevalence study. So far, to date, prevalence studies have universally found the presence of DID, with symptom expression very similar in each case.
Irwin, H. (1994). Proneness to dissociation and traumatic childhood events. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, (8), 456-460.
Horen, SA, Leichner, PP, & Lawson, S. (1995). Prevalence of dissociative symptoms and disorders in an adult psychiatric inpatient population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 185-191.
Ross, CA, Norton, GR, & Wozney, K. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: An analysis of 236 cases. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 413-418.
Boleloucky, Z. (1988). Minohocetna, disociovana osobnost - navy zajem o stary problem [Multiple personality - a new interest in an old problem]. Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie 82, 318-327.
Davis, J., & Davis, ML (1995). In O van der Hart, S Boon, & N Draijer (Eds.). Prevalence of dissociative disorders in the mental health outpatient services of a British urban district. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Spring Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, p. 78. Amsterdam: ISSD.
109 (78% female) outpatients of the Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Psychiatry services of a British national Health Service district were screened with the DES. Those with strong dissociative tendencies were followed up with the DDIS. Prevalence rate of 15.2 for Dissociative disorders in general, and 6.7% (n=7) for DID. Only 2 of the DID cases had been previously diagnosed. There was a 15.2% (n=16) prevalence rate for DD, inclusive of DID. Only 3 of the 16 cases, including the 2 DID cases, had been previously identified.Clinical profiles resembled those described in the North American literature.
DeSilva, P. & Ward, A. (1993). Personality correlates of dissociative experiences. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 857-859.
97 nonclinical sample given the DES. Frequency distribution remarkably similar to that found by Ross (1990) in a Canadian sample. 5.1% scored greater than 30.
Dettmering, P. (1991). Beschriebung einer dissoziation im ich [Description of a dissociation in the ego]. Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, 28, 210-219.
Vanderlinen, J., Varga, K., Peuskens, J, & Pieters, G. (1995). Dissociative symptoms in a population sample of Hungary. Dissociation, 8(4), 205- 208.
N=311, general population sample. Using the DIS-Q. The findings correspond with the data of all previous population studies on the prevalence of dissociative experiences. These experiences are more frequently present in adolescents and young adults, and they decline with age. An important subgroup, 10.6 of the total sample, scored about the cut- off score of 2.5. 2.6% of this subgroup reported scores as high as scores of European and American patients with DID (DIS-Q scor > 3).
Adityanjee, R., & Khandelwal, S. (1989). Current status of multiple personlity disorder in India. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1607-1610.
Das, PS, & Saxena, S. (1991). Classification of dissociative symptoms in DSM- III-R and ICD-10: A study of Indian outpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 425-427.
Berger, D., Saito, S., Ono, Y, Tezuka, I, Shirahase, J., Kuboki, T. & Suematsu, H. (1994). Dissociation and child-abuse histories in an eating disorder cohort in Japan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90(4), 274-280.
Boon, S., & Draijer, N. (1993). Multiple personality disorder in the Netherlands: A clinical investigation of 71 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 489-494.
Cohen, M, Wallage, P., & van der Hart, O. (1992). De prevalentie van dissociatieve verschijnselen en traumatische jeugdervaringen bji een Riagg populatie [The prevalence of dissociative phenomena and traumatic childhood experiences in an outpatient (Riagg) population]. Amsterdam: Riagg Zuid/Nieuw West.
Vanderlinden, J, van Dyck, R, Vandereycken, W, & Vertommen, H. (1993). Dissociation and traumatic experiences in the general population of the Netherlands. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 786-788.
Vanderlinden, J, van der Hart, O, & Varga, K. (1996). European studies of dissociation. In LK Michelson & WJ Ray (Eds.). Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives, 51-66. New York: Plenum Press.
Altrocchi, J. (1992). "We don't have that problem here": MPD in New Zealand. Dissociation, 5(2), 109-110.
Chancellor, AM, & Fraser, AR (1982). Dissociative disorder, conversion disorder, and the use of abreaction in a 22-year-old male. New Zealand Medical Journal, 95, 418-419.
Knudsen, H., Haslerud, J., Boe, T., Draijer, N., & Boon, S. (1995). Prevalence of dissociative disorders in a Norwegian general psychiatric department (inpatients and daycare). In O. van der Hart, S. Boon, & N. Draijer (Eds.). Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Spring Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 79. Amsterdam: ISSD.
101 patients given the DES, and those scoring above 30 were given the SCID-D. 8% had dissociative disorders, and 5% had DID.
Martinez-Taboas, A. (1988). Casos de personalidad multiple en Puerto Rico [Cases of MPD in Puerto Rico]. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia, 22, 57-66.
Martinez-Taboas, A. (1991). Multiple personality in Puerto Rico: Analysis of fifteen cases. Dissociation, 4, 189-192.
Bauer, AM, & Power, KG (1995). Dissociative experiences and psychopathological symptomatology in a Scottish sample. Dissociation, 8(4), 209-219.
Karilampi, U, & Carolusson, S. (1995). Marie: A single case study of multiple personality. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift [Nordic Journal of Psychiatry], 49(2), 133-140.
Sar, V., Yargic, LI, & Tutkun, H. (1996). Structured interview data on 35 cases of dissociative identity disorder in Turkey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1329-1333.
Tutkun, H, Yargic, LI, & Sar, V. (1995). Dissociative Identity Disorder: A clinical investigation of 20 cases in Turkey. Dissociation, 8 (1), 3-13.
Yargic, LI, Tutkun, H., & Sar, V. (1994). Bir cogul kisilik bozuklugu vakasi [Multiple personality disorder: A case presentation.] Noropsiliyatri Arsivi (Archives of Neuropsychiatry, Turkey), 31, 30-34.
CASES IN TWENTY COUNTRIES
Coons, PM, Bowman, ES, Kluft, RP, & Milstein, V. (1991). The cross-cultural occurrence of MPD: Additional cases from a recent survey. Dissociation, 4(3), 124-128.
Cases from 1990 include Belgium, Bulgaria, Columbia, England, Guatemala, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Puerto Rico.