DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Prevalence of DID
3-8% of inpatient populations (Saxe, et al., 1993 - U.S.; Ross, 1991; Ross, et al, 1991 - CANADA; Boon & Draijer, 1993 - NETHERLANDS; Knudsen, et al, 1995 - NORWAY) Nonclinical samples reveal approximately a 10% DD rate and a 1% MPD rate.
There has not been a single prevalence study to date that does not find DID in both clinical and non-clinical samples.
Anderson, G., Yasenik, L, & Ross, CA (1993). Dissociative experiences and disorders among women who identify themselves as sexual abuse survivors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 677-686.
Goff, DC, Olin, JA, Jenike, MA, Baer, L, & Buttolph, ML. (1992). Dissociative symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 332-337.
Latz, TT, Kramer, SI, & Highes, DL (1995). Multiple personality disorder among female inpatients in a state hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1343-1348.
McCallum, KE, Lock, J, Kulla, M, Rorty, M, & Wetzel, RD. (1992). Dissociative symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders. Dissociation, 5, 227-235.
Murphy, PE (1994). Dissociative experiences and dissociative disorders in a non-clinical university student group. Dissociation, 7(1), 28-34.
415 non-random sample. 9% (18) scored above 30 on the DES and were subsequently given the DDIS, along with a stratified random sample of 9 subjects who scored less than 30. Of the 18 scoring above 30 on the DES, 16 met criteria for one of the dissociative disorders, including 4 who met criteria for MPD.
Ross, CA. (1991). Epidemiology of multiple personality disorder and dissociation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 503-517.
Ross, CA, Anderson, G, Fleisher, WP, & Norton, GR. (1991). The frequency of multiple personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiaty, 150, 1717-1720.
Ross, CA, Kronson, J, Doensgen, S, Barkman, K, Clark, P, & Rockman, G. (1992). Dissociative comorbidity in 100 chemically dependent patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 840-842.
Saxe, GN, van der Kolk, BA, Berkowitz, R., Chinman, G, Hall, K, Leiberg, G, & Schwartz, J. (1993). Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1037-1042.
von Braunsberg, MJ (1994). Multiple personality disorder: An investigation of prevalence in three populations. Dissertation Abstracts International, ADG94-08430. New York: Syracuse University.
DID Prevalence Studies
|Study ||N ||Sample ||DD % ||DID %
|Anderson et al (1993)
||Sexual abuse survivors
|Davis & Davis
|Goff et al (1992)
|Latz, et al. (1995)
||Females, state hospital
|McCallum et al (1992)
|Ross, et al. (1991)
|Ross, Kronson, et al (1992)
|Saxe et al. (1993)
|Von Braunsberg (1994)
|Von Braunsberg (1994)
There has never been a prevalence study of general clinical or non-clinical populations where DID was found to be rare or non-existent.