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Validity and Diagnosis of DID
DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Validity and Diagnosis of DID

Armstrong, J, & Loewenstein, R. (1990). Characteristics of multiple personality and dissociative disorders on psychological testing. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178(7), 448-454.

Bernstein, EM, & Putnam, FW (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727-735.

Boon, S, & Draijer, N. (1993). Multiple personality disorder in the Netherlands: A study on reliability and validity of the diagnosis. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Carlson, EB, & Armstrong, J. (1994). The diagnosis and assessment of dissociative disorders. In SJ Lynn, & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp.159-174. New York: Guilford Press.  

Carlson, EB, & Putnam, FW. (1993). An update on the dissociative experiences scale. Dissociation, 6, 16-27.
Test-retest reliability of .84, split-half reliabilities range from .71 to .96, good internal consistency and construct validity. Idenitifies DID with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 85% in a heterogenous clinical population.

Carlson, EB, Putnam, FW, Ross, CA, Torem, M., Coons, PM, Dill, D, Loewenstein, RJ, & Braun, BG (1993). Validity of the Dissociative experiences scale in screening for multiple personality disorder: A multicenter study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150,1030-1036.

Chu, JA. (1991). On the misdiagnosis of MPD. Dissociation, 4(4), 200-204.

Coons, PM (1984). The differential diagnosis of multiple personality: A comprehensive review. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 51-57.

Coons, PM. (1993). Use of the MMPI to distinguish genuine from factitious multiple personality disorder. Psychological Reports, 73, 401-402.

Coons, PM, & Milstein, V. (1994). Factitious or malingered multiple personality disorder: Eleven cases. Dissociation, 7(2), 81-85.

Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, Mayran, MA, & Sainton, MA (1994). Convergent validity of the new form of the DES. Dissociation, 7(2), 101-103.

Ellason, JW, & Ross, CA (1995). Positive and negative symptoms in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: A comparative analysis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 236-241.

Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, & Fuchs, DL (1995). Assessment of DID with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Psychological Reports, 76, 895-905.

Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, & Fuchs, DL. (1996). Lifetime Axis I and II comorbidity and childhood trauma history in dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatry, 59(3), 255-266.

Fink, D, & Golinkoff, M. (1990). Multiple personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and schizophrenia: A comparative study of clinical features. Dissociation, 3, 127-134.

Frischholz, EJ, Braun, BG, Sachs, RG, Schwarz, DR, Lewis, J, Shaeffer, D., Westergaard, C, & Pasquotto, J. (1991). Construct validity of the dissociative experiences scale (DES): The relationship between the DES and other self report instruments. Dissociation, 4, 185-188.

Horewitz, RP, & Loewenstein, RJ. (1994). The rational assessment of multiple personality disorder. In SJ Lynn & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp. 289-316. New York: Guilford Press.

Kluft, RP (1987). The simulation and dissimulation of multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 104-118.  

McCauley, J, et al. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Unhealed wounds. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277
Study of 2000 women from John Hopkins University Medical School found more than 1 in five suffered physical or sexual abuse as children. More than half of those abused as children were also abused as adults. Abused women were more than 4 times more likely to say they had experienced at least 6 health problems in the past 6 months, including headaches, nightmares, and chest pains. Suicide attempts were 5 times more likely in that population. Abused women had more physical symptoms, higher scores for depression, anxiety, somatization, and low self esteem; were more likely to be abusing drugs, have a history of alcohol abuse; and more likely to have had a psychiatric admission.

Rosenbaum, M. (1980). The role of the term Schizophrenia in the decline of the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37,1383-1385.

Ross, CA (1990). Twelve cognitive errors about multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 64, 348-356.

Schultz, R., Braun, BG, & Kluft, RP. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: Phenomenology of selected variables in comparison to major depression. Dissociation, 2, 45-51.

Steinberg, M, Cicchetti, D, Buchanan, J, Hall, P, & Rounsaville, B. (1993). Clinical assessment of dissociative symptoms and disorders: The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 6(1), 3-15.

Steinberg, M, Cicchetti, D, Buchanan, J, Rakfeldt, J, & Rounsaville, B. (1994). Distinguishing between multiple personality disorder (DID) and schizophrenia using the SCID-D. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182,495-502.

Steinberg, M. (1994). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). (Rev. ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Steinberg, M. (1995). Handbook for the assessment of dissociation: A clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Steinberg, M, Kluft, RP, Coons, PM, Bowman, ES, Fine, CG, Find DL, Hall, PE, Rounsaville, BJ, Cicchetti, DV. (1989-1993). Multicenter field trials of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders.New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Medicine.

Steinberg, M., Rounsaville, BJ, Cicchetti, DV, et al. (1994). Distinguishing between schizophrenia and multiple personality disorder: A systematic evaluation of overlapping symptoms using a structured interview. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 495-500.  

van Ilzendoom, MH, & Schuengel, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: Meta-analytic validation of the DES. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 365-382.
Series of meta-analyses on approximately 100 studies on dissociation to test some of the theoretical assumptions underlying the DES and to examine reliability and validity. RESULTS: DES showed excellent convergent validity with other dissociative experiences questionnaires and interview schedules (combined effect size: d=1.82, N=5916). The DES also showed impressive predictive validity, in particular concerning dissociative disorders (MPD: combined effect size d=1.05, N=1705) and traumatic experiences (PTSD: combined effect size d=0.75 N=1099, and abuse: combined effect size=0.52 N=2108). However, discriminant validity was less well established. The DES is sensitive to response and experimenter biases. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended to average DES scores over more points in time and over more judges. The model of dissociation as a form of autohypnosis failed to receive support from the data. A developmental model to interpret dissociation is proposed.
Waller, NG, Putnam, FW, & Carlson, EB. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 300- 321.
DES-T may reliably differentiate DID from other clinical syndromes. Waller states that the DES-T is appropriate as a screen, but not for diagnostic purposes.

Walter, NG, Putnam, FW, & Carlson, EB. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 300- 321. 

Weber, RL (1996). The differential diagnosis of factitious dissociative identity disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International - B 75/05, p. 3426. Union Institute.
            Compares 3 groups: DID, factitious DID, and mixed psychiatric diagnoses using SCID- D, SCID-II, DES, MMPI-2. The factitious group had less severity of SCID-D scores, less severity of sexual and physical abuse memories recalled during treatment, more prior exposure to DID and leading questions, and more admissions of false symptoms, alters, and memories.


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