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Iatrogenesis of DID
DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Iatrogenesis of DID

Aldridge-Morris, R. (1989). Multiple personaltiy: An exercise in deception. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.  

Beere, DB, Pica, M, & Maurer, L. (1996). Social desirability and the DES. Dissociation, 9(2). 130-133.
In contrast to the assumptions of social enactment theory (Spanos), the findings of this study revealed that dissociativity (measured by the DES) is independent of the need to respond in a culturally appropriate and acceptable manner (measured by the Marlowe- Crowne Social Desirabilty Scale). In addition, a measure of dissociative pathology (DES-T) showed no relationship to social desirability which suggests that reports of dissociative symptoms to clinicians can be valid and not simply the result of attempts to win approval or gain attention.

Coons, PM, (1991). Iatrogenesis and malingering of multiple personality disorder in the forensic evaluation of homicide defendants. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 757-768.

Fahy, TA, Abas, M, & Brown, JC. (1989). Multiple personality: A symptom of psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 99-101.

Gleaves, DH (1996). The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: A reexamination of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 42-59.

Greaves, GB (1989). Observations on the claim of iatrogenesis in the promulgation of MPD: A discussion. Dissociation, 2, 99-104.

Harriman, PL (1942). The experimental induction of a mulitple personality. Psychiatry, 5, 179-186.

Kampman, R. (1976). Hypnotically induced multiple personality: An experimental study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 215-227.

Kluft, RP. (1989). Iatrogenic creation of new alter personalities. Dissociation, 2, 83-91.

Kohlenberg, RJ. (1973). Behavioristic approach to multiple personality: A case study. Behavior Therapy, 4, 137-140.

McHugh, P. (1993). Multiple personality disorder. Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter, 10(3), 4-6.

Merskey, H. (1992). The manufacture of personalities: The production of multiple personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 327-340.

North, CS, Ryall, JE, Ricci, DA, & Wetzel, RD. (1993). Multiple personalities, multiple disorders: Psychiatric classification and media influence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ross, CA, Norton, GR, & Fraser, GA (1989). Evidence against the iatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 2, 61-64.

Spanos, NP (1994). Hypnosis and multiple personality disorder: A sociocognitive perspective. In SJ Lynn & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp. 136-155. New York: Guilford Press.


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