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Treatment of Trauma: PTSD and DID
DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Treatment of Trauma: PTSD and DID

American Psychiatric Association (1995). Practice Guidelines for Major Depressive Disorder In Adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 
American Psychological Association (1994). Interim report of the APA working group on investigation of memories of childhood abuse.
Points of agreement: Child sexual abuse is a complex and pervasive problem. Most people remember all or most of what happened to them. It is possible for memories of abuse to have been forgotten for a long time to be remembered and it is possible to construct pseudomemories for events that never occurred. Mechanisms for both are not well understood. Memories for events and the actual event may not be isomorphic.

Bremner, JD, & Marmar, C. (Eds.) (1998). Trauma, memory and dissociation. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Briere, J. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma: Theory and Treatment of Lasting Effects.Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Briere, J. (1997). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic stress. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Briggs, L, & Joyce, PR (1997). What determines post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology for survivors in childhood sexual abuse? Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(6), 575.

Brown, D, Scheflin, AW, & Hammond, DC (In press). Memory, trauma treatment and law. Des Plaines, IL: ASCH.

Carlson, EV, Furby, L, Armstrong, J, & Shlaes, J. (1997). A conceptual framework for the long-term psychological effects of traumatic childhood abuse. Child Maltreatment, 2(3), 272-295.

Chu, JA. (1988). Ten Traps for Therapists in the Treatment of Trauma Survivors. Dissociation, 1(4), 24-32.

Chu, JA. (1992). The Therapeutic Rollercoaster: Dilemmas in the Treatment of Trauma. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 1, 351-370.

Chu, JA, (1992). Empathic confrontation in the treatment of chilhood abuse survivors. Dissociation, 5(2), 98-103.

Claridge, K. (1992). Reconstructing memories of abuse: A theory-based approach. Psychotherapy, 29(2), 243-252.

Cohen, L, Berzoff, J, & Elin, M. (Eds.). (1995). Dissociative identity disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Courtois, C. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.

Courtois, C. (1991). Theory, sequencing, and strategy in treating adult survivors. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 51, 47-60.

Davies, JM, & Frawley, MF. Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Davidson, JRT, & Foa, EB. (Eds.). (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder: DSM-IV and beyond. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.  

Epstein, RS. (1994). Keeping boundaries: Maintaining safety and integrity in the psychotherapeutic process. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Excellent book on therapeutic boundaries. Offered a useful paradigm of risk-benefit ratio for therapeutic endeavors. "Because psychotherapy always involves intrusion into a patient's space, a zero-risk treatment is no more possible than a bloodless laparotomy....For any procedure it is important to ask whether the potential gains for the patient are justified by the potential risks of injury." (p. 114).

Epstein, S., & Erskine, N. (1983). The development of personal theories of reality. In D. Magnusson & V. Allen (Eds.). Human development: An interactional perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Everly, GS., & Lating, JM. (Eds.). (1995). Psychotraumatology: Key Papers and Core Concepts in Posttraumatic Stress. New York: Plenum Press.

Fine, CG. (1991). Treatment stabilization and crisis prevention: pacing the therapy of the multiple personality disorder patient. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 661-676.

Flarsheim, A. (1972). Treatability. In PL Giovachinni (Ed.). Tactics and techniques in psychoanalytic therapy, pp. 113-131. New York: Science House.

Guidelines for Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder in Adults. (1994). Skokie, IL: International Society for the Study of Dissociation.

Gutheil, TG, & Gabbard, GO. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.

Hammond, CD, Garver, RB, Mutter, CB, et al. (1994). Clinical hypnosis and memory: Guidelines for clinicians and for forensic hypnosis. Des Plaines, IL: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis.

Herman, JL. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377-391.

Herman, JL. (1992). Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books.

Horowitz, MD. (1986). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.

Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: The Free Press.

Kluft, RP. (1990). (Ed.). Incest related syndromes of adult psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Kluft, RP, & Fine, CG (Eds.). (1993). Clinical perspectives on the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Kluft, RP. (1996). Treating traumatic memories of patients with dissociative identity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, (Festschrift Supp.), 103-110.  

Knapp, S, & Vendecreek, L. (1996). Risk management for psychologists: Treating patients who recover lost memory of childhood abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27 (5), 452-459.
Discusses issues of boundaries, acceptable procedures for diagnosing and treating survivors, informed consent, concern for the client's longterm relationship with the family, consultation in difficult cases, and careful documentation.

Kroll, J. (1993). PTSD / Borderlines in Therapy: Finding the Balance. New York: W.W. Norton.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma, alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: WW. Norton & Company.

Loewenstein, RJ. (Ed.). (1991). Multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3).

Loewenstein, RJ. (1991). An office mental status examination for complex chronic dissociative symptoms and multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3), 567-604.

Loewenstein, RJ. (1993). Posttraumatic and dissociative aspects of transference and countertransference in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. In RP Kluft & CG Fine (Eds.). Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Lynn, SJ, & Rhue, JW. (Eds.). (1994). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.  

Marmar, CR, Weiss, DS, & Pynoos, RS. (1995). Dynamic psychotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. In MJ Friedman, DS Charney, & AY Deutch (Eds.). Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: From normal adaptation to Posttraumatic Sress Disorder, pps. 495-506. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Brief dynamic or cognitive-behavioral therapy, including exposure therapies and cognitive restructuring, is indicated for uncomplicated PTSD. The addition of pharmacological treatment is indicated for PTSD complicated by panic, agoraphobia, depression, etc. For treatment of the PTSD personality with decades of unresolved traumatic stress symptoms, extensive secondary adversities, and complex comorbidity, the greatest hope is in longterm multimodal integrated psychotherapy.

McCann, IL, & Pearlman, LA. (1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy and transformation. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Michelson, LK, & Ray, WJ (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.

Nash, MR. (1994). Memory distortion and sexual trauma: The problem of false negatives and false positives. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42, 346-362.

Pearlman, L., & Saakvitne, K. (1995). Trauma and the Therapist: Countertransference and Vicarious Traumatization in Psychotherapy with Incest Survivors. New York: W.W. Norton.

Peebles-Kleiger, M J. (1989). Using countertransference in the hypnosis of trauma victims: A model for turning hazard into healing. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48, 518- 530.

Poyer, B & Giovachinni, P. (Eds.). (1990). Master clinicians: On treating the regressed patient. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Putnam, FW. (1989). Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Spiegel, D. (Ed.). (1993). Dissociative Disorders: A Clinical Review. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.

van der Hart, O. (1987). Hypnosis for individuals too susceptible to suggestions. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 11-19.

van der Hart, O, Brown, P, & van der Kolk, B. (1989). Pierre Janet's treatment of posttraumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 379-395.

van der Hart, O, & Brown, P. (1992). Abreaction re-evaluated. Dissociation, 5(4), 127-138.

van der Hart, O, Steele, K, Boon, S, & Brown, P. (1993). The treatment of traumatic memory: Synthesis, realization, and integration. Dissociation, 6, (2/3).

van der Kolk, BA, & Fisler, R E. (1994). Childhood abuse and neglect and loss of self-regulation. Bulletin of the Menniger Clinic, 58, 145-168.

van der Kolk, BA, Pelcovitz, D, Roth, S, & Herman, JL. (1996). Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: The complexity of adaptation to trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7).

van der Kolk, BA, McFarlane, AC, & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.). (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experiences on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

Wilson, JP, & Keane, TM. (Eds.). (1997). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.


For Survivors and Loved Ones
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Clinician's Guide to Medications for PTSD
Social Security Disability and SSI: Eligibility and Application Processes
Children and Adolescent Trauma recommended titles
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Healing Trauma recommended titles
Treating Trauma recommended titles
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