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Suggestibility and Hypnotic Pseudomemory
DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Suggestibility and Hypnotic Pseudomemory

Barnier, AJ & McConkey, KM. (1992). Reports of real and false memories: The relevance of hypnosis, hypnotizability, and context of memory test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 521-527. 
Brown, D. (1995). Sources of suggestion and their applicability to psychotherapy. In JL Alpert (Ed.). Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate, 60-100. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Nearly all of the literature applying memory research to psychotherapy is less than three years old. It is a large speculative position that is only weakly supported by existing data derived from research on memory suggestibility. Contemporary memory scientists have not conducted a single laboratory study on memory suggestion in psychotherapy. Memory commission errors might occur in psychotherapy only when one or both of two conditions are met: (1) the patient is highly suggestible; and (2) a particular pattern of systematic interpersonal pressure is applied.

Ceci, SJ & Bruck, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403-439.  

Christiannsen, RE, & Ochelak, K. (1983). Editing misleading information from memory: Evidence for the co-existence of original and post-event information. Memory and Cognition, 11, 467-475.
When research design controls for type of post-event misleading information (action themes; descriptions of physical characteristics, and objects in the environment that are either relevant or irrelevant to the central plot, misinformation effect is limited to peripheral details.

Christianson, SA. (1992). (Ed.). The handbook of emotion and memory: Research and theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Garry, M, & Loftus, EF. (1994). Pseudomemories without hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(4), 363-378.

Garry, M, Manning, C, & Loftus, EF. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3(2), 208-214.

Gudjosson, GH. (1989). Compliance in an interrogative situation: A new scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 535-540.

Gudjonsson, GH. (1987). The relationship between memory and suggestibility. Social Behavior, 2, 29-33.

Hammond, DC. (1996). Hypnosis, false memories, and guidelines for using hypnosis with potential victims of abuse. In JL Alpert (Ed.). Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate,101-131.

Horowitz, MJ, & Reidbord, SP. (1992). Memory, emotion, and response to trauma. In SA Christianson (Ed.). The handbook of emotion and memory: Research and theory, 343-358. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  

Kirsch, I. (1997). Suggestibility or hypnosis: What do our scales really measure? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 212-225.
Hypnotizability scales are reliable and valid measures of imaginative suggestibility, and not of sensory, placebo or interrogative suggestibility. Imaginative suggestibility is an "as if" state, whereas interrogative suggestibility is a conviction "in fact" that the world is different than it really is. Suggests that scales are a better measure of waking suggestibility than of hypnotizability.

Labelle, L., Laurence, J-R, Nadon, R., & Perry, C. (1990). Hypnotizability, preference for an imagic cognitive style, and memory creation in hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 222-228.  

Leavitt, F. (1997). False attribution of suggestibility to explain recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse following extended amnesia. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(3), 265-272.
44 patients with recovered memory and 31 patient comparison group without a history of childhood sexual abuse using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Patients who recovered memory were remarkably less suggestible than the clinical field has been led to believe. Recovered memory patients yielded to suggested prompts an average of 6.7x per case, with an average of 10.6 in comparison group.

Loftus, EF, & Coan, J. (1997). The construction of childhood memories. In DP Peters (Ed.). The child witness in context: Cognitive, social, and legal perspectives. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Loftus, EF & Pickrell, JE. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25(12), 720-725.  

Lynn, SJ (1992). Pseudomemory and age regression: An exploratory study. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35(2), 129-137.
Age regression is not associated with pseudomemory production.

McCann, T & Sheehan, PW. (1989). Pseudomemory creation and confidence in the experimental hypnosis context. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 6(3), 151- 159.

Pettinati, H. (Ed.). (1988). Hypnosis and memory. New York: Guilford.  

Spiegel, H. (1968). Facts or fiction? (Media film). F. McGee, Producer. NBC News.
A nationally televised demonstration of pseudomemory in a Grade V subject. Following hypnotic suggestion of a communist conspiracy plot at the height of McCarthyism, this subject embellishes the fictitious story and specifically named innocent individuals as being part of the plot.


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