DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Adaptation, Coping, and Resiliency
Aldwin, C, & Revenson, TA. (1987). Does coping help? A reexamination of the relationship between coping and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 337-348.
Coyne, J, Aldwin, C., & Lazarus, RS. (1981). Depression and coping in stressful episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 439-447.
Farber, EA, & Egeland, B. (1987). Invulnerability among abuse and neglected children. In EJ Anthony & BJ Cohen. (Eds). The invulnerable child, pps. 253-288. New York: Guilford Press.
Prospective study of 200 primiparous women at high risk for neglect/abuse. Study from pre-birth to age five. 24 mothers were physically abusive. 19 were hostile and verbally abusive. 19 were unavailable. 24 were neglectful, and 85 were controls. "No one has presented data indicating that there are children who function competently despite an ongoing exposure to abuse. We have attempted to find such data in a comprehensive exploration of the first 5 years of abused children's lives. Not surprisingly, results of this study indicate that there are few competent survivors....It is highly unlikely that any children remain unscathed if they experience chronic maltreatment during the early years of their life." (p. 283). "Our study found that there was a significant decline in competence over the first 5 years of life for abused children...There was little evidence that constitutional factors were important in making children less vulnerable." Environmental factors included having a male partner in the home, and the mother's emotional support of the child. It is important to distinguish between adaptation, competence, and mental state.
Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping, and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Resilience includes protective factors such as: temperament, gender (girls less vulnerable than boys), warmth of the parent, and encouraging school environment. Factors for resilience further include: positive self-esteem, supportive family milieu, external supportive societal agency, perceived internal locus of control, and ego resilience. Children with ego resilience had competent, loving parents with shared values; brittle children were exposed to discord and family conflict. Increased psychiatric disorder in children exposed to chronic, long-lasting adversities such as those involved in prolonged familiy discord, parental rejection and neglect, etc.
Himelin, MJ, & McElrath, JA. (1996). Resilient child sexual abuse survivors: Cognitive coping and illusion. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 747-758.
High adjustment group was disclosing and discussing child sexual abuse. Cognitively they minimized, positively reframed, and refused to dwell on the experience. Low adjustment group avoided or denied.
Kahana, E, Kahana, B, Harel, Z, & Rosner, T. (1988). Coping with extreme trauma. In JP Wilson, Z Harel, & B Kahana (Eds.). Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam, 55-79. New York: Plenum.
A model for coping with the Holocaust in which motives and orientations to survival from intrapsychic responses are distinguished from observable behavior. Researchers must be careful in considering the adaptive tasks in interpreting coping responses.
Lazarus, RS, & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Introduces a stress-illness model.
Master, AS, & Coatsworth, J. (1995). Competence, resilience, and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & DJ Cohen (Eds.). Developmental Psychopathology: Risk, Disorder, and adaptation, pps. 715-752. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Roth, S, & Newman, E. (1991). The process of coping with sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4, 279-297.
Presents a conceptual system that characterizes the coping process of recovery from sexual trauma. Preliminary reliability is discussed.
Runtz, MG, Shaelow, JR. (1997). Social support and coping strategies as mediators of adult adjustment following child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 45-51.
Werner, EE, & Smith, RS (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill Books.