DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Authors A-EAbelson, RP. (1995). Statistics as principled argument. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Adityanjee, R., & Khandelwal, S. (1989). Current status of multiple personlity disorder in India. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1607-1610.
Adler, G, & Buie, D. (1979). Aloneness and borderline psychopathology: the possible relevance of child development issues. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 60, 83-96.
Ainsworth, MD. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44(4), 709-716.
Albach, F., Moorman, PP, & Bermond, B. (in press) Memory recovery of childhood sexual abuse. Dissociation.
97 women with child sexual abuse and a matched group of 65 controls. 35% of CSA group reported amnesia at some time, compared to 1% of controls who reported amnesia for nontraumatic unpleasant childhood experiences. Psychotherapy was not typically reported to be the cause of recovering abuse memories.
Aldridge-Morris, R. (1989). Multiple personaltiy: An exercise in deception. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Aldwin, C, & Revenson, TA. (1987). Does coping help? A reexamination of the relationship between coping and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 337-348.
Alexander, PC. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 60, 185-195.
Altrocchi, J. (1992). "We don't have that problem here": MPD in New Zealand. Dissociation, 5(2), 109-110.
American Group Psychotherapy Association. (1991). Guidelines for Ethics. New York: AGPA.
American Psychiatric Association (1995). Practice Guidelines for Major Depressive Disorder In Adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
American Psychological Association (1994). Interim report of the APA working group on investigation of memories of childhood abuse.
Points of agreement: Child sexual abuse is a complex and pervasive problem. Most people remember all or most of what happened to them. It is possible for memories of abuse to have been forgotten for a long time to be remembered and it is possible to construct pseudomemories for events that never occurred. Mechanisms for both are not well understood. Memories for events and the actual event may not be isomorphic.
Anderson, G., Yasenik, L, & Ross, CA (1993). Dissociative experiences and disorders among women who identify themselves as sexual abuse survivors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 677-686.
Andrews, B, Morton, J, Bekerian, DA, Brewin, CR, Davies, GM, & Mollon, P. (May, 1995). The recovery of memories in clinical practice: Experiences and beliefs of British Psychological Society Practitioners. The Psychologist, 209-214.
Applebaum, PS, Lidz, CW, & Meisel, A. (1987). Informed consent: Legal theory and clinical practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Archibald, HC, & Tuddenham, RD. (1965). Persistent stress reaction after combat. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 475-481.
Armstrong, J, & Loewenstein, R. (1990). Characteristics of multiple personality and dissociative disorders on psychological testing. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178(7), 448-454.
Baars, BJ, & McGovern, K (1995). Steps toward healing: False memory and traumagenic amnesia may coexist in vulnerable populations. Consciousness and Cognition, 4(1), 68- 74.
Bacal, H. (1985). Optimal responsiveness and the therapeutic process. In A. Goldberg (Ed.) Progress in self psychology, pp. 202-226. Vol. I. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.
Bagley, C. (1995). Child sexual abuse and mental health in adolescents and adults. Aldershot: Avebury.
Study of women 18-24 years who had been removed from home 10 years previously by social services due to intrafamilial sexual abuse. Of the 19 women for whom there was evidence of serious sexual abuse, 14 remembered events corresponding to their records. Two remembered that abuse had taken place but could recall no specific details, and three had no memory. Two of the last three described long blank periods for the memory of childhood corresponding to the age when abuse had taken place.
Baldessarini, RJ, Findlestein, S, & Arana, GW. (1983). The predictive power of diagnostic tests and the effect of prevalence of illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 569-573.
Barach, PMM. (1991). MPD as an attachment disorder. Dissociation, 4 (3), 117-123.
Barnier, AJ & McConkey, KM. (1992). Reports of real and false memories: The relevance of hypnosis, hypnotizability, and context of memory test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 521-527.
Baron, J., Beattie, J., & Hershey, JD (1988). Heuristics and biases in diagnostic reasoning: Congruence, information and certainty. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 42, 88-110
Confirmatory bias issues and problems with clinical judgement in diagnosis.
Bauer, AM, & Power, KG (1995). Dissociative experiences and psychopathological symptomatology in a Scottish sample. Dissociation, 8(4), 209-219.
Beahrs, JO, Cannell, JJ, & Gutheil, TG (1996). Delayed traumatic recall in adults: A synthesis with legal, clinical, and forensic recommendations. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 24, 45-55.
Beere, DB, Pica, M, & Maurer, L. (1996). Social desirability and the DES. Dissociation, 9(2). 130-133.
In contrast to the assumptions of social enactment theory (Spanos), the findings of this study revealed that dissociativity (measured by the DES) is independent of the need to respond in a culturally appropriate and acceptable manner (measured by the Marlowe- Crowne Social Desirabilty Scale). In addition, a measure of dissociative pathology (DES-T) showed no relationship to social desirability which suggests that reports of dissociative symptoms to clinicians can be valid and not simply the result of attempts to win approval or gain attention.
Belicki, K., Correy, B., Boucock, A., Cuddy, M, & Dunlop, A. (1994). Reports of sexual abuse: Facts or fantasies? Unpublished manuscript. St. Catherine's, Ontario: Brock University. [cited in Scheflin & Brown, 1996]
55.4% of abused students in study reported disrupted memory. Subjects reporting no abuse responded significantly differently than the other three groups with respect to definitions of sexual abuse, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and dream behavior. There were no significant differences in response to the questions between those who had disrupted memory and those who did not. Those who had recovered memories were just as likely as those who had continuous memory to have corroborative evidence. Those with disrupted memory were significantly more likely to have experienced repeated episodesof abuse; to have experienced a combination of both sexual and physical abuse and to have been abused by a family member.
Berger, D., Saito, S., Ono, Y, Tezuka, I, Shirahase, J., Kuboki, T. & Suematsu, H. (1994). Dissociation and child-abuse histories in an eating disorder cohort in Japan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90(4), 274-280.
Berliner, L, Williams, LM. (1994). Memories of child sexual abuse: A response to Lindsay and Read. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 379-387.
Bernet, CZ, Deutscher, R., Ingram, RE, & Litrownik, AJ. (1993). Differential factors in the repression of memories of childhood sexual abuse. Poster session presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Behavioral Therapy. [cited in Scheflin & Brown, 1996]
624 undergraduates. 21% reported at least one experience of sexual abuse prior to age 15. 36% reported no memory for a period of time. Only 30% had been in therapy, so it was "unlikely that they remembered their abuse as a consequence of psychotherapy."
Bernet, W. (1997). Case Study: Allegations of abuse created in a single interview. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 966-970.
Single case study of a 5-year-old child induced to "recall" abuse by parents in an audiotaped session with her babysitter, who was coercive, leading, and suggestive.
Bernstein, EM, & Putnam, FW (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727-735.
Birtchnell, J. (1984). Dependence and its relationship to depression. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 57, 215-225.
Blank, AS. (1985). The unconscious flashback to the war in Vietnam veterans: Clinical mystery, legal defence, and community problem. In SM Sonneberg, AS Blank, & JA Talbott. (Eds.). The trauma of war: Stress and recovery in Vietnam Veterans. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Boleloucky, Z. (1988). Minohocetna, disociovana osobnost - navy zajem o stary problem [Multiple personality - a new interest in an old problem]. Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie 82, 318-327.
Boon, S., & Draijer, N. (1993). Multiple personality disorder in the Netherlands: A clinical investigation of 71 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 489-494.
Boon, S, & Draijer, N. (1993). Multiple personality disorder in the Netherlands: A study on reliability and validity of the diagnosis. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Bornstein, R F. (1995). Active dependency. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 64-77.
Bornstein, R F., & Bowen, R F. (1995). Dependency in psychotherapy: Toward an integrated treatment approach. Psychotherapy, 32(4), 520-534.
Bowers, K, & Davidson, TM. (1991). A neodissociation critique of Spanos' sociopsychological model of hypnosis. In SJ Lynn, & JW Rhue (Eds.) Theories of hypnosis: Current models and perspectives, pp. 105-143. New York: Guilford.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss, Vol. II: Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Branscomb, LP (1991). Dissociation in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Dissociation, 4, 13-20.
Bremner, JD, Southwick, S, Brett, E., Fontana, A., Rosenheck, R., & Charney, DS. (1992). Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 328-332.
Bremner, JD, Steinberg, M, Southwick, SM, Johnson, DR, & Charney, DS. (1993). Use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders for systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(7), 1011-1014.
40 Vietnam vets with PTSD and 15 without PTSD were assessed. PTSD patients had more severe dissociative symptoms. Amnesia was the symptom area of greatest difference in scores between PTSD and non-PTSD subjects.
Bremner, JD, Krystal, JH, Charney, DS, & Southwick, SM (1996). Neural mechanisms in dissociative amnesia for childhood abuse: Relevance to the current controvery surrounding the "false memory syndrome." American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7), 71-82.
Bremner, JD, & Marmar, C. (Eds.) (1998). Trauma, memory and dissociation. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Brende, JO, & Benedict, BD. (1980). The Vietnam combat delayed stress syndrome: Hypnotherapy of "dissociative symptoms." American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 34-40.
Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, & Gotlib, IH. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 82-98.
Three sources of errors are documented: (1) claims that reliability and validity of autobiographical memory is low in general; (2) claims that there is general memory impairment associated with psychpathology; and (3) claims that there are specific mood congruent memory biases associated with psychopathology. Claims regarding the general unreliability of retrospective reports are exaggerated and there is little reason to link psychiatric status to less reliable and valid recall. However, steps should also be taken to overcome limitations of retrospective reports and to enhance reliability.
Brewin, CR. (1996). Scientific status of recovered memories. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 131-134.
Evidence exists for both accuracy and inaccuracy of both remembered and recovered memories. Some review of the literature.
Briere, J. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma: Theory and Treatment of Lasting Effects.Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Briere, J, & Conte, J. (1993). Self-reported amnesia for abuse in adults molested as children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 21-31.
450 subjects. 59% did not remember abuse at some point.
Briere, J. (1997). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic stress. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Briggs, L, & Joyce, PR (1997). What determines post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology for survivors in childhood sexual abuse? Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(6), 575.
British Psychological Association. (1996). Recovered memories: The report of the working party of the BPA. In K. Pexdek & WF Banks (Eds.). The recovered memory/false memory debate, pp. 373-392. San Diego: Academic Press.
Memory may be recovered within or independent of therapy. Recovery is reported by highly experienced and well-qualified therapists who are well aware of the dangers of inappropriate suggestion and interpretation. There is no reliable evidence that the creation of false memories by therapists is a widespread phenomenon. There is evidence for incorrect memories, but less evidence for the creation of false memories.
Brown, D. (1995). Pseudomemories: The standard of science and the standard of care in trauma treatment. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 1-24.
Three kinds of suggestibility are identified: hypnotizability, post-event misinformation suggestibility, and interrogatory suggestibility. A better standard of science is needed before claims can be made about PM production in therapy, since no experimental studies have been conducted on memory performance or suggestibility effects in therapy.
Brown, D. (1995). Sources of suggestion and their applicability to psychotherapy. In JL Alpert (Ed.). Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate, 60-100. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Nearly all of the literature applying memory research to psychotherapy is less than three years old. It is a large speculative position that is only weakly supported by existing data derived from research on memory suggestibility. Contemporary memory scientists have not conducted a single laboratory study on memory suggestion in psychotherapy. Memory commission errors might occur in psychotherapy only when one or both of two conditions are met: (1) the patient is highly suggestible; and (2) a particular pattern of systematic interpersonal pressure is applied.
Brown, D, Scheflin, AW, & Hammond, DC (1998). Memory, trauma treatment and law. Des Plaines, IL: ASCH.
Burgess, AW, Hartman, CR, & Baker, T. (1995). Memory presentations of child sexual abuse. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 33(9), 9-16.
19 children with a median age of 2 1/2 with documented history of day care sexual abuse. 11 had full verbal memory, 5 had fragmented verbal memory traces, and 3 had no memory at the age of 10 years. Children's memory has four dimensions: somatic, behavioral, verbal, and visual.
Cameron, C. (1996). Comparing amnesic and nonamnesic survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study. In K. Pezdek & W Banks (Eds.). The recovered memory/false memory controversy, 41-68. San Diego: Academic Press.
60 women. 35% always remembered; 23% had partially forgotten; 42% had completely forgotten for between 15 and 50 years. 46% who had always remembered wanted to confront abusers. 63% who recovered memory wanted to confront, partly to help validate returning memory.
Campbell, D. (197?). Experimental and quasi-experimental design.
Cardena, E. & Spiegel, D. (1993). Dissociative reactions to the San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(3), 474-478.
Amnesia and memory disruption found. Peritraumatic dissociation predicted PTSD.
Carlier, IVE, & Gersons, BPR (1997). Stress reactions in disaster victims following the Bijlmermeer plane crash. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10 (2), 329-336.
1992 El Al 747 crash into an Amsterdam apartment complex. 9% experienced amnesia.
Carlson, E. (Nov, 1991). Trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress, dissociation and depression in Cambodian refugees. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148 (11), 1548-1551.
50 female and 24 male refugees randomly selected from 500 throughout the US. Although only 1 in 50 had received professional mental health intervention, 86% met DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD.. Mean DES score was 37.1 (Range, 9.3-88.6, SD, 16.1). Only two in the sample had a DES in the normal range. The mean of 37.1 was exceeded in PTSD samples of veterans in only 1 (Branscomb, 1991) out of 5 such studies. "There was a high rate of dissociative symptoms in this group, but such symptoms are seldom noted or studied in trauma victims." The distribution of this sample of above average DES scores "supports the view that dissociation is a universal response to traumatic experiences."
Carlson, EB, & Putnam, FW. (1993). An update on the dissociative experiences scale. Dissociation, 6, 16-27.
Test-retest reliability of .84, split-half reliabilities range from .71 to .96, good internal consistency and construct validity. Idenitifies DID with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 85% in a heterogenous clinical population.
Carlson, E., & Rosser-Hogan, R. (April, 1993). Mental health status of Cambodian refugees ten years after leaving their homes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(2), 223-231.
"90% reported amnesia for upsetting events."
Carlson, EB, Putnam, FW, Ross, CA, Torem, M., Coons, PM, Dill, D, Loewenstein, RJ, & Braun, BG (1993). Validity of the Dissociative experiences scale in screening for multiple personality disorder: A multicenter study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150,1030-1036.
Carlson, EB, & Armstrong, J. (1994). The diagnosis and assessment of dissociative disorders. In SJ Lynn, & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp.159-174. New York: Guilford Press.
Carlson, EV, Furby, L, Armstrong, J, & Shlaes, J. (1997). A conceptual framework for the long-term psychological effects of traumatic childhood abuse. Child Maltreatment, 2(3), 272-295.
Ceci, SJ, Toglia, MP, & Ross, DF. (1987). Children's eyewitness memory. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ceci, SJ & Bruck, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403-439.
Chancellor, AM, & Fraser, AR (1982). Dissociative disorder, conversion disorder, and the use of abreaction in a 22-year-old male. New Zealand Medical Journal, 95, 418-419.
Charney, DS, Deutch, AY, Krystal, JH, et al. (1993). Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 294-305.
Chaves, JF. (1997). The state of the "state" debate in hypnosis: A view from the cognitive-behavioral perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4593), 251-265.
Christiannsen, RE, & Ochelak, K. (1983). Editing misleading information from memory: Evidence for the co-existence of original and post-event information. Memory and Cognition, 11, 467-475.
When research design controls for type of post-event misleading information (action themes; descriptions of physical characteristics, and objects in the environment that are either relevant or irrelevant to the central plot, misinformation effect is limited to peripheral details.
Christianson, SA (1984). The relationship between induced emotional arousal and amnesia. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 25, 147-160.
Christianson, SA (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness testimony. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 284-309.
Emotional memories, in comparison to memory for normal events, are more detailed, accurate, and not prone to error.
Christianson, SA. (1992). (Ed.). The handbook of emotion and memory: Research and theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Chu, JA. (1988). Ten Traps for Therapists in the Treatment of Trauma Survivors. Dissociation, 1(4), 24-32.
Chu, JA, & Dill, DL. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 887-892.
Chu, JA. (1991). On the misdiagnosis of MPD. Dissociation, 4(4), 200-204.
Chu, JA. (1992). The Therapeutic Rollercoaster: Dilemmas in the Treatment of Trauma. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 1, 351-370.
Chu, JA. (1992). Empathic confrontation in the treatment of chilhood abuse survivors. Dissociation, 5(2), 98-103.
Chu, JA, Matthews, JA, Frey, LM, & Ganzel, B. (1996). The nature of traumatic memories of childhood abuse. Dissociation, 9(1), 2-17.
Claridge, K. (1992). Reconstructing memories of abuse: A theory-based approach. Psychotherapy, 29(2), 243-252.
Cochram, WG, Cox, GM, et al. (1992). Experimental designs. New York: John Wiley.
Cohen, CP, & Sherwood, VR. (1991). Becoming a constant object in psychotherapy with the borderline patient. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Cohen, J. (1985). Trauma and repression. Psycholanalytic Inquiry, 5, 163-189.
Says the concept of neurotic repression does not fit the phenomenology of the dynamics of psychic trauma. He proposed that "primal repression" is the precursor to repression proper and is the essence of the traumatic state, characterized by loss of effective functioning, diffuse aggression, severe anxiety, inability to sleep or dream, and physiological disturbances. Proposes the "hole" metaphor and state that in trauma biological survival needs and "wants" become inextricably linked with overwhelming affects.
Cohen, L, Berzoff, J, & Elin, M. (Eds.). (1995). Dissociative identity disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Cohen, M, Wallage, P., & van der Hart, O. (1992). De prevalentie van dissociatieve verschijnselen en traumatische jeugdervaringen bji een Riagg populatie [The prevalence of dissociative phenomena and traumatic childhood experiences in an outpatient (Riagg) population]. Amsterdam: Riagg Zuid/Nieuw West.
Connors, ME. (1997). Need and responsiveness in the treatment of a severely traumatized patient: A relational perspective. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 51(1), 86-101.
Coons, PM (1984). The differential diagnosis of multiple personality: A comprehensive review. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 51-57.
Coons, PM (1986). Treatment progress in 20 patients with multiple personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 715-721.
Coons, PM, Bowman, ES, Kluft, RP, & Milstein, V. (1991). The cross-cultural occurrence of MPD: Additional cases from a recent survey. Dissociation, 4(3), 124-128.
Cases from 1990 include Belgium, Bulgaria, Columbia, England, Guatemala, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Puerto Rico.
Coons, PM, (1991). Iatrogenesis and malingering of multiple personality disorder in the forensic evaluation of homicide defendants. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 757-768.
Coons, PM. (1993). Use of the MMPI to distinguish genuine from factitious multiple personality disorder. Psychological Reports, 73, 401-402.
Coons, PM, & Milstein, V. (1994). Factitious or malingered multiple personality disorder: Eleven cases. Dissociation, 7(2), 81-85.
Corwin, D. & Olson, E. (1997). Videotaped discovery of a reportedly unrecallable memory of child sexual abuse: Comparison with a childhood interview taped 11 years before. Child Maltreatment, 2(2), 91-112.
Case study of videotaped child interview and later interview in which adult had forgotten the abuse.
Courtois, C. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.
Courtois, C. (1991). Theory, sequencing, and strategy in treating adult survivors. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 51, 47-60.
Courtois, CA. (1995). Scientist-practitioners and the delayed memory controversy: Scientific standards and the need for collaboration. The Counseling Psychologist, 23, 261-277.
Coyne, J, Aldwin, C., & Lazarus, RS. (1981). Depression and coping in stressful episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 439-447.
Culpin, M. (1940). Mode of onset of the neuroses of war. In E. Miller (Ed.). The neuroses of war, pps. 33-54. New York: Macmillan.
Dahlenberg, CJ. (1996). Accuracy, timing, and circumstances of disclosure in therapy of recovered and continuous memories of abuse. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24(2), 229-275.
17 women recovered memories of sexual or physical abuse by their fathers in therapy. Ss and their fathers cooperated in finding evidence for the abuse, which was presented to and rated by 6 independent judges. Memories of abuse were equally accurate whether continuously remembered or recovered.
Dammeyer, MD, Nightingale, NN, & McCoy, ML (1997). Repressed memory and other controversial origins of sexual abuse allegations: Beliefs among psychologists and clinical social workers. Child Maltreatment, 2(3), 252-263.
110 PhD experiemental psychologists, 111 PhD clinical psychologists, 105 PsyD psychologists, and 72 MSWs participated in the study to assess beliefs about repressed memory. Clinicians expressed more confidence that such memories can and do exist than experimental psychologists. No differences were found between clinicians with different types of academic training. 58% of PhD clinicians, 71% of PsyDs, and 60% of MSWs endorsed a firm belief in repressed memory.
Das, PS, & Saxena, S. (1991). Classification of dissociative symptoms in DSM- III-R and ICD-10: A study of Indian outpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 425-427.
Davidson, JRT, & Foa, EB. (Eds.). (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder: DSM-IV and beyond. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Davies, JM, & Frawley, MF. Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.
Davis, J., & Davis, ML (1995). In O van der Hart, S Boon, & N Draijer (Eds.). Prevalence of dissociative disorders in the mental health outpatient services of a British urban district. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Spring Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, p. 78. Amsterdam: ISSD.
109 (78% female) outpatients of the Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Psychiatry services of a British national Health Service district were screened with the DES. Those with strong dissociative tendencies were followed up with the DDIS. Prevalence rate of 15.2 for Dissociative disorders in general, and 6.7% (n=7) for DID. Only 2 of the DID cases had been previously diagnosed. There was a 15.2% (n=16) prevalence rate for DD, inclusive of DID. Only 3 of the 16 cases, including the 2 DID cases, had been previously identified.Clinical profiles resembled those described in the North American literature.
Dawes, RM. (1994). House of cards: Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth. New York: Free Press.
Skeptical criticisms of the psychology field in which the author claims that most psychology is "junk science" and that psychotherapy is entirely unscientific. Similar views are held by Paul McHugh, MD.
Deitz, J. (1992). Self-psychological approach to posttraumatic stress disorder: neurobiological aspects of transmuting internalization. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 20, 277-293.
Dell, PF (1988). Professional skepticism about multiple personality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 528-531.
DeSilva, P. & Ward, A. (1993). Personality correlates of dissociative experiences. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 857-859.
97 nonclinical sample given the DES. Frequency distribution remarkably similar to that found by Ross (1990) in a Canadian sample. 5.1% scored greater than 30.
Dettmering, P. (1991). Beschriebung einer dissoziation im ich [Description of a dissociation in the ego]. Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, 28, 210-219.
DeWind, E. (1968). The confrontation with death. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 302-305.
Most former inmates of Nazi concentration camps could not remember anything of the first days of imprisonment because perception of reality was so overwhelming that it would lead to a mental chaos which implies a certain death.
Ditto, PH, & Lopez, DF (1992). Motivated skepticism: Use of differential decision criteria for preferred and non-preferred conclusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 568-584.
Doris, J. (Ed.). (1991). The suggestibility of children's recollections. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Draijer, N. (1990). Seksuele traumatisering in de jeugd: Govolgen oplange termijn van seksueel misbruik van meisjes door verwanten. Amsterdam, SUA.
1054 women. 82% reported denying abuse; 57% had full or partial amnesia.
Dunn, GE, Paolo, AM, Ryann, JJ, & van Fleet, JN. (1994). Belief in the existence of multiple personality disorder among psychologists and psychiatrists. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 50, 454-457.
Durlacher, GL (1991). De zoektocht [The search]. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff.
Dutch sociologist , a survivor of Birkenau, describes his search for and meetings with another 20 child survivors from this camp. "Misha...looks helplessly at me and admits hesitantly that the period in the camps is wiped out from his brain....With each question regarding the period between December 12, 1942 till May 7, 1945, he admits while feeling embarrassed that he cannot remember anything." Jindra...had to admit that he remembers almost nothing from his years in the camps...."From the winter months of 1944 until just before the liberation in April 1945, only two words stayed with him: Dora and Nordhausen....In a flash I understand his amnesia, and shocked, I hold my tongue. Dora was the hell which almost nobody surivived, was it not? Underground, without fresh air or daylight, Hitler's secret weapon of destruction, the V-2 rocket, was made by prisoners. Only the dying or the dead came above the ground, and Kapos, and guards." (P.129).
Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, Mayran, MA, & Sainton, MA (1994). Convergent validity of the new form of the DES. Dissociation, 7(2), 101-103.
Ellason, JW, & Ross, CA (1995). Positive and negative symptoms in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: A comparative analysis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 236-241.
Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, & Fuchs, DL (1995). Assessment of DID with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Psychological Reports, 76, 895-905.
Ellason, JW, Ross, CA, & Fuchs, DL. (1996). Lifetime Axis I and II comorbidity and childhood trauma history in dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatry, 59(3), 255-266.
Ellason, JW, & Ross, RA (1997). Two year follow-up of inpatients with dissociative identity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 832-839.
135 inpatients with DID, 54 located 2 years later. Marked improvement of Schneiderian first-ranked symptoms, mood and anxiety disorders, dissociative symptoms, and somatization, with significantly less psychiatric medications prescribed.
Ellenberger, HF. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
Essential reading on the roots of dynamic psychiatry. Has a very detailed section on Janet.
Elliott, DM, & Briere, J. (1995). Posttraumatic stress associated with delayed recall of sexual abuse: A general population study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 629-648.
Random general population study. 505 subjects. 30% of women and 14% of men report sexual abuse. 42% had full or partial amnesia. 7% were in therapy. 13% said therapy involved recovery of memory. Therapy was the least endorsed trigger of recovered memory.
Elliot, DM, & Fox, B. (1994). Child abuse and amnesia: Prevalence and triggers to memory recovery. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Traumatic Stress. Chicago, IL. [cited in Scheflin & Brown, 1996].
484 students. 36% of women and 15% of men reported abuse. 30% reported significant periods when they had no memory of the abuse. The least commonly reported triggers for recovered memory was psychotherapy.
El-Rayes, MES. (1982). Traumatic war neuroses: Egyptian experience. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 128, 67-71.
Ensink, BJ. (1992). Confusing realities: A study of child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms. Amsterdam, VU University Press.
100 women. 29% had times when they had completely forgotten. 57% had intervals where they had never thought about it or had completely forgotten.
Epstein, RS. (1994). Keeping boundaries: Maintaining safety and integrity in the psychotherapeutic process. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Excellent book on therapeutic boundaries. Offered a useful paradigm of risk-benefit ratio for therapeutic endeavors. "Because psychotherapy always involves intrusion into a patient's space, a zero-risk treatment is no more possible than a bloodless laparotomy....For any procedure it is important to ask whether the potential gains for the patient are justified by the potential risks of injury." (p. 114).
Epstein, S., & Erskine, N. (1983). The development of personal theories of reality. In D. Magnusson & V. Allen (Eds.). Human development: An interactional perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Eriksson, N-G, Lundin, T. (1996). Early traumatic stress reactions among Swedish survivors of the MS Estonia disaster. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, (6), 713-716.
42 survivors. 43% had emotional numbing; 55% had reduction in awareness; 67% had derealization; 33% had depersonalization; and 29% had dissociative amnesia. All dissociative symptoms were predictive of posttraumatic reactions. This study substantiates the importance of assessing dissociative symptoms during a life threatening event as a possible predictor for later posttraumatic reactions and possible PTSD.
Everly, GS., & Lating, JM. (Eds.). (1995). Psychotraumatology: Key Papers and Core Concepts in Posttraumatic Stress. New York: Plenum Press.
Ey, H. (1988). Pierre Janet: The man and his work. In BB Wolman (Ed.). Historical roots of contemporary psychology. New York: Harper & Row.