DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Fahy, TA, Abas, M, & Brown, JC. (1989). Multiple personality: A symptom of psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 99-101.
Farber, EA, & Egeland, B. (1987). Invulnerability among abuse and neglected children. In EJ Anthony & BJ Cohen. (Eds). The invulnerable child, pps. 253-288. New York: Guilford Press.
Prospective study of 200 primiparous women at high risk for neglect/abuse. Study from pre-birth to age five. 24 mothers were physically abusive. 19 were hostile and verbally abusive. 19 were unavailable. 24 were neglectful, and 85 were controls. "No one has presented data indicating that there are children who function competently despite an ongoing exposure to abuse. We have attempted to find such data in a comprehensive exploration of the first 5 years of abused children's lives. Not surprisingly, results of this study indicate that there are few competent survivors....It is highly unlikely that any children remain unscathed if they experience chronic maltreatment during the early years of their life." (p. 283). "Our study found that there was a significant decline in competence over the first 5 years of life for abused children...There was little evidence that constitutional factors were important in making children less vulnerable." Environmental factors included having a male partner in the home, and the mother's emotional support of the child. It is important to distinguish between adaptation, competence, and mental state.
Feldman-Summers, S. & Pope, KS. (1994). The experience of "forgetting" childhood abuse: A national survey of psychologists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 636-639.
330 psychologists. 24% physical and 22% sexual abuse. Of those abused, 40% did not remember at some time. 47% had corroboration. 56% said psychotherapy aided in recall. Differences between those who first recalled abuse in therapy and those who recalled it elsewhere were not significant.
Feldman-Summers, S. & Pope, KS (1995). Recovered memories of abuse among therapy patients: A national survey. Ethics and Behavior, 5(3), 237-248.
Survey of 205 female and 173 male psychologists found that 73% had a least 1 patient who claimed to recover previously forgotten memories of childhood sexual abuse. 8-9 patients out of every thousand. About half of those who recovered memory found external validation.
Femina, D, Yeager, CA, & Lewis, DO. (1990). Child abuse: Adolescent records versus adult recall. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 661-676.
Fine, CG. (1991). Treatment stabilization and crisis prevention: pacing the therapy of the multiple personality disorder patient. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 661-676.
Fink, D, & Golinkoff, M. (1990). Multiple personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and schizophrenia: A comparative study of clinical features. Dissociation, 3, 127-134.
Fiorica, JV, Hoffman, MS, Roberts, WS, LaPolla, JP, & Cavanagh, D. (1990). Detection of endometrial carcinoma: Clinical judgment versus histologic examination. Southern Medical Journal, 83, 759-760.
D&C is routinely performed for postmenopausal bleeding. The tendency is to rely on results of the D&C rather than clinical judgment if the results are benign. Looking for high-risk factors may ensure a correct diagnosis. Case examples of 4 women with histologically normal results, but with several high risk factors (age, weight, hypertensive, diabetes, and in one, an elevated tumor marker antigen. Clinical judgment weighing risk factors is essential, even in the face of normal empirical tests.
Fish, V, & Scott, C. (in press). Childhood abuse recollections in a non-clinical population: Forgetting, secrecy, dissociation, and absorption. Unpublished manuscript. [cited in Scheflin & Brown, 1996]
423 counselors. 14% physically abused; 25% sexually abused. 52% had forgotten all or part of the abuse for a period of time. 32% had said they forgot abuse completely for a period of time.
Fivush, R, & Hudson, J. (Eds.). (1987). Knowing and remembering in young children. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fivush, R. (1993). Developmental perspectives on autobiographical recall. In GS Goodman & BL Bottoms (Eds.). Child victims, child witnesses; Understanding and improving testimony, pp. 1-24. New York: Guilford Press.
Fivush, R & Schwarzmueller, A. (1995). Say it once again: Effects of repeated questions on children's event recall. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4).
Review of research examining influences of repeated questioning on children's event recall.
Flarsheim, A. (1972). Treatability. In PL Giovachinni (Ed.). Tactics and techniques in psychoanalytic therapy, pp. 113-131. New York: Science House.
Fonagy, P., Leigh, T., Steele, M. (1996). The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64 (1), 22-31.
Fox, RE. (1995). The rape of psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 147-155.
Article discusses the backlash against psychotherapy, both in the culture and within the managed care arena.
Frankel, FH. (1994). Adult reconstruction of childhood events in the multiple personality literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 954-958.
Fraser, GA, & Raine, D. (1992). Cost analysis of the treatment of MPD. In BG Braun (Ed). Ninth Annual International Conference on Multiple Personality/Dissociative States, 10. Chicago, IL: Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital.
Although initial costs are high, the rate of hospitalization and intense utilization of services decreases over several years in the treatment of MPD.
Freyd, JJ. (1994). Betrayal trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 307-329.
Freyd, JJ. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Friedman, S. (1997). On the "true-false" memory syndrome: The problem of clinical evidence. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 51(1), 102-122.
Faced with a lack of external confirmatory data and basing their judgements on sometimes dubious evidence, psychoanalytic clinicians are faced with a need to establish criteria on which to base decisions regarding historic truth, however lacking in certainty. This report endeavors to establish some standards that may enable analysts to decide between historic and psychic reality.
Frischholz, EJ, Braun, BG, Sachs, RG, Schwarz, DR, Lewis, J, Shaeffer, D., Westergaard, C, & Pasquotto, J. (1991). Construct validity of the dissociative experiences scale (DES): The relationship between the DES and other self report instruments. Dissociation, 4, 185-188.
Fromm, E & Nash, MR. (Eds.). (1992). Contemporary hypnosis research. New York: Guilford.
Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping, and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Resilience includes protective factors such as: temperament, gender (girls less vulnerable than boys), warmth of the parent, and encouraging school environment. Factors for resilience further include: positive self-esteem, supportive family milieu, external supportive societal agency, perceived internal locus of control, and ego resilience. Children with ego resilience had competent, loving parents with shared values; brittle children were exposed to discord and family conflict. Increased psychiatric disorder in children exposed to chronic, long-lasting adversities such as those involved in prolonged familiy discord, parental rejection and neglect, etc.
Garry, M, & Loftus, EF. (1994). Pseudomemories without hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(4), 363-378.
Garry, M, Manning, C, & Loftus, EF. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3(2), 208-214.
Geleerd, ER, Hacker, FJ, Rapaport, D. (1945). Contributions to the study of amnesia and allied conditions. Psychological Quarterly, 14, 199-220.
Gemmel, W & Cochram, WG. (1997). Sampling techniques. New York: John Wiley.
Ghent, E. (1993). Wish, need, & neediness. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 3, 495-507.
Glaser, BG, & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.
Gleaves, DH (1996). The evidence for "repression": An examination of Holmes and implications for the recovered memory controvery. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 5(1), 1-19.
Gleaves, DH (1996). The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: A reexamination of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 42-59.
Goff, DC, Olin, JA, Jenike, MA, Baer, L, & Buttolph, ML. (1992). Dissociative symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 332-337.
Gold, SN, Hughes, D, & Hohnecker, L. (1994). Degrees of repression of sexual abuse memories. American Psychologist, 49, 441-442.
105 subjects (87% women). Initial interview: 30% had no memory of abuse; 40% had partial memory; 30% had always remembered.
Gold, SN, & Brown, L. (1997). Therapeutic responses to delayed recall: Beyond recovered memory. Psychotherapy, 34(2), 182-191.
Heated controversy has arisen over the advisability of making recovery of tramatic memories a central intervention strategy in psychotherapy for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This article addresses why such an approach can be deleterious, discusses alternatives to memory-focused treatment, and presents core strategies for facilitating self-management of intrusive recall in order to promote client autonomy and empowerment.
Goldfeld, AE, Mollica, RF, Pesavento, BH, et al. (1988). The physical and psychological sequelae of torture: Symptomatology and diagnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259, 2725-2729.
Reports on 4 studies of torture victims with memory loss/disturbance (does not specifically discuss or look for amnesia: Allodi & Cowgill (1982) N=42, 29% (12); Rasmussen & Lunde, (1980) N=135, 45% (61); Domovitch et al (1984) N=98, 38% (37); and Amesty International Human Rights Missions to Uganda, Greece, Chile, Iraq, Egypt, and Northern Ireland: N=19, 32% (6).
Good, MI. (1994). The reconstruction of early childhood trauma: fantasy, reality, & verification. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 42(1), 79-101.
Goodman, GS, Rudy, L., Bottoms, BL, & Aman, C. (1990). Children's concerns and memory: Issues of ecological validity in the study of children's eyewitness testimony. In R. Fivush & J. Hudson (Eds.). Knowing and remembering in young children., 249-284.
Goodman, GS, Hirschman, JE, Hepps, D, & Ruby, L (1991). Children's memory for stressful events. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 37,109-158.
Goodman, GS, Quas, J, Batterman-Fance, JM, et al. (1991). Predictors of accurate and inaccurate memories of traumatic events experienced in childhood. Consciousness and Cognition, 3(3), 269-294.
46 children undergoing urinary catheterization. A few children denied having the procedure. Facts of embarrassment, lack of discussion of the procedure with parents, and PTSD symptoms were predictive of poor memory performance.
Grassian, S., & Holtzen, D. (in press). Sexual abuse by a parish priest I: Memory of the abuse.
99 victims of Father James Porter. Of the 42 who responded to questions about memory, 19% reported "no thoughts" about the abuse. The data revealed two groups: internalizers, who had few thoughts about the abuse over significant life periods, but became symptomatic thought out their lives and showed intensification of symptoms when they recovered the memory; and externalizers, who retained continuous memory but showed consistently lower adjustment in the form of conduct and addictive behaviors.
Greaves, GB (1989). Observations on the claim of iatrogenesis in the promulgation of MPD: A discussion. Dissociation, 2, 99-104.
Grinker, RR, & Spiegel, JP. (1945). Men under Stress. Philadelphia: Blakiston.
Gudjonsson, GH. (1987). The relationship between memory and suggestibility. Social Behavior, 2, 29-33.
Gudjosson, GH. (1989). Compliance in an interrogative situation: A new scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 535-540.
Guidelines for Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder in Adults. (1994). Skokie, IL: International Society for the Study of Dissociation.
Gunderson, JG. (1996). The borderline patient's intolerance of aloneness: Insecure attachments and therapist availability. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 752-758.
Explication of the genesis of the borderline's intolerance of aloneness, and the desperate feelings and actions that ensue. An object relations view is taken, in which the therapist must provide a consistent, predictable, albeit limited availability. Discusses specific interventions and encourages therapists to set clear boundaries, but not to withdraw.
Gutheil, TG, & Gabbard, GO. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
Hammond, CD, Garver, RB, Mutter, CB, et al. (1994). Clinical hypnosis and memory: Guidelines for clinicians and for forensic hypnosis. Des Plaines, IL: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis.
Hammond, DC. (1996). Hypnosis, false memories, and guidelines for using hypnosis with potential victims of abuse. In JL Alpert (Ed.). Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate,101-131.
Harriman, PL (1942). The experimental induction of a multiple personality. Psychiatry, 5, 179-186.
Harvey, MR, & Herman, JL (1994). Amnesia, partial amnesia, and delayed recall among adult survivors of childhood trauma. Consciousness and Cognition, 4, 295-306.
Hayes, JA, & Mitchell, JC. (1994). Mental health professionals' skepticism about multiple personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 410-415.
Study on accuracy of diagnosis. Clinicians, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers, were given vignettes of schizophrenic and DID patients. Accurate diagnosis of DID was made by only 21.9% of clinicians. There was only 1 false positive diagnosis of DID. 79.1% missed the diagnosis. Skepticism and lack of knowledge of DID was measured and both predicted DID diagnostic inaccuracy. Supports the claim that DID is seriously underdiagnosed.
This study is similar to the one done by Ford & Wideiger (1989), who gave clinicians cases of antisocial and histrionic personality disorders, and assigned patient sex to the cases. Therapists, regardless of which case they had been given, generally assigned males to antisocial PD and females to histrionic PD. The authors demonstrated it was the therapist's own biases, stereotypes, and preconceptions that were at fault.
Hendin, H., Haas, AP, & Singer, P. (1984). The reliving experience in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146,490-495.
Herman, JL, & Schatzow, E. (1987). Recovery and verification of memories of childhood sexual trauma. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 4, 1-4.
52 women. 36% always remembered; 64% partial amnesia; 36% mild to moderate amnesia. 74% found some corroboration; 40% got confirmation from perpetrator.
Herman, JL. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377-391.
Herman, JL. (1992). Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books.
Hewitt, SA. (1994). Preverbal sexual abuse: What two children report in later years. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18(10), 821-826.
Hilgard, ER. (1986). Divided consciousness: Multiple controls in human thought and action. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Hilliard, JR. (1983). Emergency management of the suicidal patient. In JI Walker (Ed.). Psychiatric Emergencies: Intervention and resolution, pp.101-123. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott.
Himelin, MJ, & McElrath, JA. (1996). Resilient child sexual abuse survivors: Cognitive coping and illusion. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 747-758.
High adjustment group was disclosing and discussing child sexual abuse. Cognitively they minimized, positively reframed, and refused to dwell on the experience. Low adjustment group avoided or denied.
Hirschfeld, E. (1993). Use of practice parameters as standard of care and in health care reform: A view from the American Medical Association. Joint Commission Journal of Quality Improvements, 19, 322-329.
Physicians would likely feel hemmed in by guidelines that constitute an express legal standard of care and would be afraid to deviate from them except under the auspices of carefully controlled research protocols.
Holmes, DS. (1990). Evidence for repression: An examination of 60 years of research. In JL Singer (Ed). Repression and dissociation: Implication for personality theory, psychopathology, and health, 85-102. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Holmes, J. (1993). Attachment theory: A biological basis for psychotherapy? British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 430-438.
Hopkins, KD, & Glass, GV. (1978). Basic statistics for the behavioral sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Horen, SA, Leichner, PP, & Lawson, S. (1995). Prevalence of dissociative symptoms and disorders in an adult psychiatric inpatient population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 185-191.
Horewitz, RP, & Loewenstein, RJ. (1994). The rational assessment of multiple personality disorder. In SJ Lynn & JW Rhue (Eds.). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp. 289-316. New York: Guilford Press.
Horowitz, MD. (1986). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.
Horowitz, MJ, & Reidbord, SP. (1992). Memory, emotion, and response to trauma. In SA Christianson (Ed.). The handbook of emotion and memory: Research and theory, 343-358. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hovdestad, WE, & Kristinasen, CM. (1996). A field study of "false memory syndrome": Construct validity and incidence. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24(2), 299-338.
Howes, M, Siegel, M., & Brown, F. (1993). Early childhood memory: Accuracy and affect. Cognition 47 (2), 95-119.
The majority of memory proved accurate and was characterized by distinct emotion, more negative emotions than positive. Claims that infantile memories are powered uniquely by trauma and/or are routinely distorted were not supported.
Hudson, JI, & Pope, HG (1995). Can memories of childhood abuse be repressed? Psychological Medicine, 25, 121-126.
Irwin, H. (1994). Proneness to dissociation and traumatic childhood events. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, (8), 456-460.
Irwin, HJ (1996). Traumatic childhood events, perceived availability of emotional support, and the development of dissociative tendencies. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 701-707.
Jaffe, R. (1968). Dissociative phenomena in former concentration camp inmates. International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 49, 310-312.
Case descriptions include amnesia for traumatic events and subsequent twilight states in which events would be relived without conscious awareness. "I should like to add that the dissociative phenomena described here turn out not to be rare, once one is on the look out for them." (p. 312.)
Janet, P. (1886). Les actes inconscients et le dedoublement de la personnalite pendant le somnambulisme provoque. Revue Philosophique, 22, II, 577-792.
Janet, P. (1889). L'automatisme psychologique. Paris: Felix Alcan. Reprint: Societe Pierre Janet, Paris, 1973.
Janet, P. (1891). Etude sur un cas d'aboulie et d'idees fixes. Revue Philosophique, 331, 1, 258- 287.
Janet, P. (1893). L'amnesie continue. Revue Generale des Sciences, 4, 167-179.
Janet, P. (1894). Histoire d'une idée fixe. Revue Philosophique, 37, I, 121-163. Also in P. Janet (1898). Névroses et idées fixes, Vol. I (pp. 156-212). Paris: F. Alcan.
Janet, P. (1897). L'influence somnambulique et le besoin de direction. Revue Philosophique, 43, I, 113- 143. Also in P. Janet (1898a), Névroses et idées fixes,Vol. 1 (pp. 423-484). Paris: Félix Alcan. (Reprint: Société Pierre Janet, Paris, 1990.)
Janet, P. (1898). Traitement pychologique de l'hysterie. In A. Robin (Ed.), Traite de therapeutique appliquée (pp. 140-216). Paris: Rueff. Also in P. Janet (1911), L' État mental des hystériques, 2nd ed. (pp. 506-544). Paris; F. Alcan. (Reprint: Lafitte Reprints, Marseille, 1983.)
Janet, P. (1898). Nevroses et idees fixes. Vol. I. Paris: Felix Alcan.
Janet, P (1901). The mental state of hystericals. New York; Putnam and Sons. (Reprint: University Publications of America, Washington, DC, 1977.)
Janet, P. (1903). Les obsessions et la psychasthénie (2 vols.). Paris: F. Alcan. (Reprint: Arno Press, New York, 1976.)
Janet, P. (1904). L'amnesie et la dissociation des souvenirs par l'emotion. Journale de Psychologie, 1,417-453.
Janet, P. (1907). The major symptoms of hysteria. London and New York: Macmillan.
Janet, P. (1909). Les nervoses. Paris: Flammarion.
Janet, P. (1909). Du rôle de l'émotion dans la genèse des accidents névropathiques et psychopathiques. Revue Neurologique, 17, II, 1551-1687.
Janet, P. (1910). Une félida artificielle. Revue philosophique, 69, I, 329-357, 483-529.
Janet, P. (1919). Les médications psychologiques (3 vols.). Paris: Félix Alcan. (Reprint: Société Pierre Janet, Paris, 1984). English edition: Psychological healing (2 vols.). New York: Macmillan, 1925. (Reprint: Arno Press, New York, 1976.)
Janet, P. (1928). L'evolution de la memoire et de la notion du temps. Paris: A Chahine.
Janet, P. (1932). Memories which are too real. In CM Campbell, HS Langfeld, W McDougall, AA Roback, & EW Taylor (Eds.). Problems of personality: Studies presented to Dr. Morton Prince in American psychopathology, p. 141-150. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & Co.
Janet, P. (1937). Psychological strength and weakness in mental diseases. In Factors determining human behavior, pp. 64-106. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: The Free Press.