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Authors K-N
DID/Trauma/Memory Reference List
Authors K-NKahana, E, Kahana, B, Harel, Z, & Rosner, T. (1988). Coping with extreme trauma. In JP Wilson, Z Harel, & B Kahana (Eds.). Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam, 55-79. New York: Plenum.
A model for coping with the Holocaust in which motives and orientations to survival from intrapsychic responses are distinguished from observable behavior. Researchers must be careful in considering the adaptive tasks in interpreting coping responses.Kampman, R. (1976). Hypnotically induced multiple personality: An experimental study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 215-227.

Karilampi, U, & Carolusson, S. (1995). Marie: A single case study of multiple personality. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift [Nordic Journal of Psychiatry], 49(2), 133-140.


Karon, BP, & Widerner, AJ. (1997). Repressed memory in World War II Veterans. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28(4), 338-340.
Psychologists who worked for the VA in WW II documented hundreds of cases of repressed memory in troops returning from battle. Includes citation of a report of 20 cases by Charles Fisher in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 14, 4437-4468. "The war neuroses of WW II provide ample evidence that repression does indeed occur, and that the recovery of these traumatic memories and their related effects led to remission of symptoms."

Kaszniak, AW, Nussbaum, PD, Berren, MR, & Santiago, JM. (1988). Amnesia as a consequence of male rape: A case report. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 100-104.


Keilson, H. (1979/1992). Sequential traumatization in children. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press/Hebrew University.
Amnesia in Jewish Dutch child survivors for the traumatic separation from their parents.

Kihlstrom, JF. (1997). Convergence in understanding hypnosis? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 324-332.

Kinzie (1986). (children in Cambodian concentration camps). Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 370-376.

Children have "poor recall or difficulty in recalling". 58% "avoided" memories of Cambodia. The authors, who do not discuss memory, note that massive avoidance and denial were very helpful in helping the children cope and the major factor in helping the children avoid severe PTSD was family.

Kinzie, JD. (1993). Posttraumatic effects and their treatment among Southeast Asian refugees. In JP Wilson & B. Raphael. (Eds.). International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes, pp. 311-319. New York: Plenum Press.


Kirsch, I. (1997). Suggestibility or hypnosis: What do our scales really measure? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 212-225.
Hypnotizability scales are reliable and valid measures of imaginative suggestibility, and not of sensory, placebo or interrogative suggestibility. Imaginative suggestibility is an "as if" state, whereas interrogative suggestibility is a conviction "in fact" that the world is different than it really is. Suggests that scales are a better measure of waking suggestibility than of hypnotizability.

Kluft, RP (1987). The simulation and dissimulation of multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 104-118.

Kluft, RP (1989). Iatrogenic creation of new alter personalities. Dissociation, 2, 83-91.

Kluft, RP. (1990). (Ed.). Incest related syndromes of adult psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Kluft, RP. (1991). Hospital treatment of multiple personality disorder: An overview. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 695-720.

Kluft, RP, & Fine, CG (Eds.). (1993). Clinical perspectives on the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.


Kluft, RP (1994). Treatment trajectories in multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 7(1), 63-76.
A prototype instrument to measure treatment progress in MPD across a number of therapeutic dimensions (eg, therapeutic alliance, need for medication, hospitalization, etc.).


Kluft, RP. (1995). The confirmation and disconfirmation of memories of abuse in DID patients: A naturalistic clinical study. Dissociation, 8(4), 253-258.
34 DID patients. 19 (56%) had confirmation. 10 of the 19 (53%) had always recalled the confirmed trauma. 13 of the 19 (68%) obtained confirmation for events that were recalled during the course of treatment. 3 (9%) had instances in which inaccuracy of their recollection was demonstrated. 85% of confirmed memories were accessed with hypnosis

Kluft, RP. (1996). Treating traumatic memories of patients with dissociative identity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, (Festschrift Supp.), 103-110.


Knapp, S, & Vendecreek, L. (1996). Risk management for psychologists: Treating patients who recover lost memory of childhood abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27 (5), 452-459.
Discusses issues of boundaries, acceptable procedures for diagnosing and treating survivors, informed consent, concern for the client's longterm relationship with the family, consultation in difficult cases, and careful documentation.


Knudsen, H., Haslerud, J., Boe, T., Draijer, N., & Boon, S. (1995). Prevalence of dissociative disorders in a Norwegian general psychiatric department (inpatients and daycare). In O. van der Hart, S. Boon, & N. Draijer (Eds.). Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Spring Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 79. Amsterdam: ISSD.
101 patients given the DES, and those scoring above 30 were given the SCID-D. 8% had dissociative disorders, and 5% had DID.

Kohlenberg, RJ. (1973). Behavioristic approach to multiple personality: A case study. Behavior Therapy, 4, 137-140.

Koss, MP, Tromp, S, & Tharan, M. (1995). Traumatic memories: Empirical foundations, forensic and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2(2), 111-131.


Krell, R. (1993). Child survivors of the Holocaust: Strategies of adaptation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 384-389.
"The most pervasive preoccupation of child survivors is the continuing struggle with memory, whether there is too much or too little....For a child survivor today, an even more vexing problem is the intrusion of fragments of memory - most are emotionally powerful and painful but make no sense. They seem to become more frequent with time and are triggered by thousands of subtle or not so subtle events....As children they were encouraged not to tell, but to lead normal lives and forget the past....Some are able to protect themselves by splitting time into past, present , and future....The interviewer can assist in sequencing fragments of memory, sometimes even filling in gaps with historical information and other data. Fragments of memory which made no sense had often been experienced as 'crazy' and never shared with anyone...To achieve relief for symptomatic child survivors, the knowledgeable therapist elicits memories, assists in their integration, makes sense of the sequence and encourages the child survivor to write their story, publish it, tape, or teach it."

Kris, E. (1956). The recovery of childhood memories in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 11, 54-88.


Kristiansen, CM, Felton, KA, Hovdestad, WE, & Allard, CB. (1995). The Ottawa study: A summary of the findings. Unpublished manuscript. Ottawa, Ontario: Carleton University.
113 women. 61% had some corroboration. 51% had partially or fully forgotten; 49% had always remembered.

Kroll, J. (1993). PTSD / Borderlines in Therapy: Finding the Balance. New York: W.W. Norton.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma, alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: WW. Norton & Company.


Krystal, H. (1994). Holocaust survivor studies in the context of PTSD. PTSD Research Quarterly, 5 (4).
"Some authors also point to disturbances of memory: amnesia, hyperamnesias and disturbances of consciousness, which in retrospect we later recognized as trances."


Krystal, H., & Neiderland, WG (1968). Clinical observations on the survivors syndrome. In H. Krystal (Ed). Massive Psychic Trauma, 327-384. New York: International Universities Press.
Discusses problems of hypermnesia and amnesia.

Krystal, JH, Kosten, TR, Southwick, SM, Mason, JW, Perry, BD, Giller, EL. (1989). Neurobiological aspects of PTSD: Review of clinical and pre-clinical studies. Behavior Therapy, 20(2), 177-198.

Kubie, LS. (1943). Manual of emergency treatment for acute war neuroses. War Medicine, 4, 582-599.


Kuch, K., & Cox, B.J. (1992). Symptoms of PTSD in 124 survivors of the Holocaust. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 337-340.
Potential subjects with confirmed or suspected organicity, bipolar or obsessive complusive disorder were excluded. One group (N=78) had been detained in various concentration camps for greater than 1 month. A second group (N=20) had been detained in Auschwitz and had been tattooed. A third group (N=45) had not been in labor camps, ghettos, or had hidden in the illegal underground. Psychogenic amnesia was found in 3.2% of the totals sample, in 3.8 of the general concentration camp survivors, and in 10% of tattooed survivors of Auschwitz. 17.7% (N=22) of the total sample had received psychotherapy. The tattooed survivors had a higher number of PTSD symptoms overall.

Labelle, L., Laurence, J-R, Nadon, R., & Perry, C. (1990). Hypnotizability, preference for an imagic cognitive style, and memory creation in hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 222-228.


Lagnado, LM, & Dekel, SC (1991). Children of the flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the untold story of the twins of Auschwitz. New York: William and Morrow & Co.
"A few of the twins insisted that they had no memories of Auschwitz whatsoever. Instead, they dwelt on the sadness of their postwar adult lives - their emotional upheavals, physical breakdowns, and longings for the dead parents they had hardly known." (p. 8).

Latz, TT, Kramer, SI, & Highes, DL (1995). Multiple personality disorder among female inpatients in a state hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1343-1348.


Laub, D., & Auerhahn, N. (1989). Failed empathy - A central theme in the survivor's holocaust experience. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 6(4), 377-400.
Discusses the centrality of the relationship in the healing of trauma. The loss of self, other, and internalized soothing introject in severe trauma leaves the survivor essentially alone and wordless. The therapeutic relationship is essential in providing connection with self and other, as well as internalization of a soothing introject. A narrative of the trauma can then be re-created.


Laub, D., & Auerhahn, N. (1989). Failed empathy - A central theme in the survivor's Holocaust experience. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 6(4), 377-400.
Holocaust survivors remember their experiences through a prism of fragmentation and usually recount them only in fragments....A curious blend often exists between almost polar experiences: Remembering minute details in their fullest color and subtlest tones, while being unable to place those details in their narrative context or specific situational reference.


Laub, D. & Auerhahn, N (1993). Knowing and not knowing massive psychic trauma: Forms of traumatic memory. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 74, 287-302.
"The knowledge of trauma is fiercely defended against, for it can be a momentous, threatening, cognitive and affective task, involving an unjaundiced appraisal of events and our own injuries, failures, conflicts, and losses....To protect ourselves from affect we must, at times, avoid knowledge....Situations of horror destroy the detached sensibility necessary for articulation, analysis, elaboration....Knowing...requires a capacity for metaphor which cannot withstand atrocity...Notwithstanding the difficulties around and the struggle against knowing, the reality of traumatic events is so compelling that knowledge prevails, despite its absence to consciousness and its incompleteness....The different forms of remembering trauma range from not knowing, fugue states, fragments, transference phenomena, overpowering narratives, life themes, witnessed narratives, metaphors....These vary in degree of encapsulation versus integration of the experience and in degree of ownership of the memory, i.e., the degree to which an experiencing 'I' is present as subject....Erecting barriers against knowing is often the first response to such trauma. Women in Nazi concentration camps dealt with difficult interrogation by the Gestapo by derealization, by asserting 'I did not go through it. Somebody else went through the experience.' A case study example is included of a man in therapy who wanted to capture an elusive memory. The only remaining trace was a sense of dread on hearing the phone click. Over time, he recollected a traumatic war time experience as a child involving the death of a doctor whom he had loved, and for which he felt partly responsible. Having recovered the memory he had lost, its intrusive fragments no longer blocked him from pursuing his life. Many of his somatic symptoms receded at the time....Unintegrable memories endure as a split-off part, a cleavage in the ego....When the balance is such that the ego cannot deal with the experience, fragmentation occurs....Simply put, therapy with those impacted by trauma involves, in part, the reinstatement of the relationship between event, memory and personality."


Laurence, JR. (1997). Hypnotic theorizing: Spring cleaning is long overdue. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 280-290.
Suggests that "armchair theorizing" of clinicians has led to destructive practices and that most experiments are interpreted to support the theoretical stance of the researcher. A remedy is to start designing experiments that will actually thrust theories against one another. Also, both clinical and research theories are both often based on hypothesized mental constructs that have no substantiation.


Lazarus, RS, & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Introduces a stress-illness model.


Leavitt, F. (1997). False attribution of suggestibility to explain recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse following extended amnesia. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(3), 265-272.
44 patients with recovered memory and 31 patient comparison group without a history of childhood sexual abuse using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Patients who recovered memory were remarkably less suggestible than the clinical field has been led to believe. Recovered memory patients yielded to suggested prompts an average of 6.7x per case, with an average of 10.6 in comparison group.

Levy, RA. (1987). A method for the recovery of mishap related events lost to amnesia. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 58(3), 257-259.

Lindsay, DS, & Read, JD. (1994). Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 281-338.

Lindsay, DS, & Read, JD. (1995). 'Memory work' and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: Scientific evidence and public, professional, and personal issues. Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, 1, 846-908.

Liotti, G. (1992). Disorganized/Disoriented attachment in the etiology of dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 5 (4), 196-204.

Loewenstein, RJ. (Ed.). (1991). Multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3).

Loewenstein, RJ. (1991). An office mental status examination for complex chronic dissociative symptoms and multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3), 567-604.

Loewenstein, R.J. (1991). Psychogenic amnesia and psychogenic fugue: A comprehensive review. In A. Tasman & S. Goldfinger (Eds). Amercian Psychiatric Press Annual Review of Psychiatry, 10, 189-222. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Loewenstein, RJ. (1993). Posttraumatic and dissociative aspects of transference and countertransference in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. In RP Kluft & CG Fine (Eds.). Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Loewenstein, R.J. (1994). Diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical course, treatment, and cost effectiveness of treatment for dissociative disorders and multiple personality disorder: Report submitted to the Clinton administration task force on health care financing reform. Dissociation, 7(1), 3-11.

Loewenstein, R.J. (1995). Dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue. In W. Michaelson & HR Ray (Eds).Handbook of Dissociation. (Second ed., in press). New York: Plenum.


Loftus, EF, Garry, M, & Feldman, J. (1994). Forgetting sexual trauma: What does it mean when 38% forget? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62 , 1177-1181.
Discusses possibilities other than repression in William's study of 129 women: forgetting, conscious avoidance, shame, etc. However, does go on to say..."The findings do support the claim that many children can forget about a sexually abusive experience from their past. Extreme claims such as "if you were raped, you'd remember" are disproven by these findings." (p. 1177).

Loftus, EF, & Ketchum, K. (1994). The myth of repressed memory: False memories and allegations of sexual abuse. New York: St. Martin's.


Loftus, EF, Polonsky, S, & Fullilove, MT (1994). Memories of childhood ssexual abuse: Remembering and repressing. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 67-84.
105 women in treatment for substance abuse. 54% reported memory of child sexual abuse. 19% "forgot" documented abuse, 12% had partially forgotten, and 69% had always remembered.

Loftus, EF & Pickrell, JE. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25(12), 720-725.

Loftus, EF, & Coan, J. (1997). The construction of childhood memories. In DP Peters (Ed.). The child witness in context: Cognitive, social, and legal perspectives. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Loftus, EF. (1997) Creating false memories. Scientific American, 70-75.

Lynn, SJ, & Rhue, JW. (Eds.). (1991). Theories of hypnosis: Current models and perspectives. New York: Guilford.


Lynn, SJ (1992). Pseudomemory and age regression: An exploratory study. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35(2), 129-137.
Age regression is not associated with pseudomemory production.

Lynn, SJ, & Rhue, JW. (Eds.). (1994). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Lynn, SJ. (1997). Automaticity and hypnosis: A sociocognitive account. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 239-250.


Madakasira, S, & O,Brien, K. (1987). Acute posttraumatic stress disorders in victims of natural disaster. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 286-290.
Amnesia mentioned as component of acute stress.

Shore, JH, Tatum, EL, & Vollmer, WM (1986). Psychiatric reactions to disaster: The Mount St. Helen's experience. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 590-595.


Mai, F. (1995). Psychiatrists' attitudes to multiple personality disorder: A questionnaire study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 154-157.
71% "believed" in diagnosis; 29% skeptical.

Main, M. (1996). Overview of the field of attachment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (2), 237-243.


Marks, J. (1995). The hidden children: The secret survivors of the Holocaust. Toronto: Bantam Books.
Ava Landy describes her amnesia: "So much of my childhood between the ages of four and nine is blank....It's almost as if my life was smashed into little pieces...The trouble is, when I try to remember, I come up with so little. This ability to forget was probably my way of surviving emotionally as a child. Even now, whenever anything unpleasant happens to me, I have a mental garbage can in which I can put all the bad stuff and forget it....I'm still afraid of being hungry....I never leave my house without some food....Again, I don't remember being hungry. I asked my sister and she said that we were hungry. So I must have been! I just don't remember." (P. 188).


Marmar, CR, Weiss, DS, & Pynoos, RS. (1995). Dynamic psychotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. In MJ Friedman, DS Charney, & AY Deutch (Eds.). Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: From normal adaptation to Posttraumatic Sress Disorder, pps. 495-506. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Brief dynamic or cognitive-behavioral therapy, including exposure therapies and cognitive restructuring, is indicated for uncomplicated PTSD. The addition of pharmacological treatment is indicated for PTSD complicated by panic, agoraphobia, depression, etc. For treatment of the PTSD personality with decades of unresolved traumatic stress symptoms, extensive secondary adversities, and complex comorbidity, the greatest hope is in longterm multimodal integrated psychotherapy.

Martinez-Taboas, A. (1988). Casos de personalidad multiple en Puerto Rico [Cases of MPD in Puerto Rico]. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia, 22, 57-66.

Martinez-Taboas, A. (1991). Multiple personality in Puerto Rico: Analysis of fifteen cases. Dissociation, 4, 189-192.


Martinez-Taboas, A. (1996). Recovered memory: Some clinical data contributing towards its elucidation. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 50(2), 217-230.
Presents 2 cases of female patients with DID. Recovered memory in both were verified and analyzed to support credibility of delayed recall.

Master, AS, & Coatsworth, J. (1995). Competence, resilience, and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & DJ Cohen (Eds.). Developmental Psychopathology: Risk, Disorder, and adaptation, pps. 715-752. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons.


Mazor, A., Ganpel, Y., Enright, RD, & Ornstein, R. (Jan., 1990). Holocaust survivors: Coping with posttraumatic memories in childhood and 40 years later. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3 (1), 11-14.

McCallum, KE, Lock, J, Kulla, M, Rorty, M, & Wetzel, RD. (1992). Dissociative symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders. Dissociation, 5, 227-235.

McCann, IL, & Pearlman, LA. (1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy and transformation. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

McCann, T & Sheehan, PW. (1989). Pseudomemory creation and confidence in the experimental hypnosis context. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 6(3), 151- 159.


McCauley, J, et al. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Unhealed wounds. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277
Study of 2000 women from John Hopkins University Medical School found more than 1 in five suffered physical or sexual abuse as children. More than half of those abused as children were also abused as adults. Abused women were more than 4 times more likely to say they had experienced at least 6 health problems in the past 6 months, including headaches, nightmares, and chest pains. Suicide attempts were 5 times more likely in that population. Abused women had more physical symptoms, higher scores for depression, anxiety, somatization, and low self esteem; were more likely to be abusing drugs, have a history of alcohol abuse; and more likely to have had a psychiatric admission.

McHugh, P. (1993). Multiple personality disorder. Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter, 10(3), 4-6.


McLeer, SV, Deblinger, E, & Atkins, MS, et al. (1988). Posttraumatic stress disorder in sexually abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 650-654.
48% had symptoms of PTSD. In cases of incest it was 75%.

McMinn, MR, & Wade, NG (1995). Beliefs about the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder, sexual abuse, and ritual abuse among religious and nonreligious therapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26 (3), 257-261.


Meadow, W., Mendez, D, Lantos, J, Hupps, R, & Ostrowski, M. (1992). What is the legal "standard of medical care" when there is no standard of medical care? A survey of the use of home apnea monitoring by neonatology fellowship trainng programs in the US. Pediatrics, 89, 1083-1088.
"Use the skill and care that is ordinarily employed by reasonably well-qualified doctors in a similar manner." What should be done if expert opinions differ concerning the care that is "ordinarily" used?

Meissner, WW. (1992). The concept of the therapeutic alliance. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 40, 1059 -1087.


Melchert, TP (1996). Childhood memory and a history of different forms of abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(5), 438-446.
553 nonclinical sample reporting physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Percent that reported they had periods without memory of abuse are consistent across subsamples: 21% physical, 18% sexual, 18% emotional.

Mendenhall, W, McClave, JT, & Ramey, M. (1977). Statistics for psychology. (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press

Merskey, H. (1992). The manufacture of personalities: The production of multiple personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 327-340.

Michelson, LK, & Ray, WJ (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.


Modai, I. (1994). Forgetting childhood: A defense mechanism against psychosis in a Holocaust survivor. In T. L. Brink, (Ed.). Holocaust survivors' mental health. New York: Haworth Press. Also published in: (1994) Clinical Gerontologist, 14(3), 67-71.
In a debate about uncovering painful memories of the Holocaust, Modai's case is of a 58 year old woman who is unable to remember her childhood.


Moskovitz, S., & Krell, R. (1990). Child survivors of the Holocaust: Psychological adaptations to survival. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Services, 27(2), 81-91.
"Whatever the memories, much is repressed as too fearful for recall, or suppressed by well-meaning caretakers wishing the child to forget. Without confronting the fear and recapturing the fragments of memory, the survivor cannot make the necessary connections which allow reintegration of their whole life; neither can they obtain the peace of mind that comes with closure." (p. 89).


Murphy, PE (1994). Dissociative experiences and dissociative disorders in a non-clinical university student group. Dissociation, 7(1), 28-34.
415 non-random sample. 9% (18) scored above 30 on the DES and were subsequently given the DDIS, along with a stratified random sample of 9 subjects who scored less than 30. Of the 18 scoring above 30 on the DES, 16 met criteria for one of the dissociative disorders, including 4 who met criteria for MPD.


Musaph, H. (1993). Het post-concentratiekampsyndroom [The post-concentration camp syndrome]. Maandblad Geestelijke volksgezondheid [Dutch Journal of Mental Health], 28(5), 207-217.
Amnesia exists for certain Holocaust experiences, while other experiences are extremely well remembered.

Myers, LS. (January, 1915). A contribution to the study of shell-shock. Lancet, 316-320.

Nash, MR. (1994). Memory distortion and sexual trauma: The problem of false negatives and false positives. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42, 346-362.

Nash, MR. (1997). Why scientific hypnosis needs psychoanalysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45, (3), 291-300.

Nemiah, JC. (1989). Janet redivivus: The centenary of L'Automatisme Psychologique. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1527-1530.


Ney, T. (Ed.). (1995). True and false allegations of child sexual abuse: Assessment and case management.New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Chapters all related to children's testimony. Interesting chapters on children's comprehension of truth and falsehood, memory development, and language abilities.


Niederland, WG. (1968). Clinical observations on the "survivor syndrome." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 313-315.
Discusses memory disturbances such as amnesia and hypermnesia.

North, CS, Ryall, JE, Ricci, DA, & Wetzel, RD. (1993). Multiple personalities, multiple disorders: Psychiatric classification and media influence. New York: Oxford University Press.


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